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Table 1 Association between HL presence and each outcome based on multivariable logistic regression models

From: The association between childhood hearing loss and self-reported peer victimisation, depressive symptoms, and self-harm: longitudinal analyses of a prospective, nationally representative cohort study

N = 10,858 children High depressive symptoms
OR (95% CI)
Peer victimisation
OR (95% CI)
Self-harm
OR (95% CI)
HL presence and sex n/a   n/a
Boys, HL absent   Reference  
Boys, HL present vs absent   1.02 (0.71–1.46)  
Girls vs boys, HL absent   0.89 (0.73–1.09)  
HL presence in girls vs HL presence in boys   1.81 (1.10–2.99)  
Any HL, present 1.32 (1.09–1.60) n/a 1.41 (1.12–1.78)
Sex, girls 2.88 (2.56–3.24) n/a 3.31 (2.85–3.85)
Ethnic background, non-white 0.76 (0.64–0.91) 0.65 (0.50–0.85) 0.65 (0.51–0.83)
NICU admission 1.29 (1.08–1.55) 1.01 (0.78–1.32) 0.99 (0.78–1.26)
Parental education p = 0.33 p = 0.43 p = 0.24
NVQ1 Reference Reference Reference
NVQ2 1.26 (0.98–1.62) 1.26 (0.86–1.83) 1.04 (0.77–1.41)
NVQ3 1.18 (0.89–1.55) 1.24 (0.82–1.86) 0.85 (0.61–1.18)
NVQ4 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 1.37 (0.94–2.00) 0.87 (0.65–1.18)
NVQ5 (highest) 1.11 (0.84–1.45) 1.08 (0.73–1.60) 0.79 (0.57–1.09)
Other 1.17 (0.88–1.55) 1.15 (0.79–1.68) 0.89 (0.61–1.29)
LLI at one or more sweeps 1.54 (1.30–1.82) 1.50 (1.21–1.87) 1.57 (1.28–1.92)
Maternal age, per year increase 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.00)
Baseline odds 0.23 (0.16–0.34) 0.15 (0.09–0.26) 0.11 (0.07–0.18)
  1. Estimates are adjusted for sampling design and attrition, and include imputed data for missing values (0 for sex and ethnic background, 2 for parental education, 32 for maternal age, 44 for NICU, 2217 for LLI, and 3571 for HL). CI confidence interval, HL hearing loss, LLI limiting longstanding illness additional to HL, n/a not applicable as not included in the model, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, NVQ national vocational qualification (levels 1–2 equivalent to education to 15–16 years of age, level 3 to 18 years of age, level 4 to undergraduate degree and level 5 to postgraduate education), OR odds ratio