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Table 4 Associations between socioeconomic, demographic, health and social characteristics and having difficulty in accessing information related to health care products e.g. medicines, herbs, or cosmetics

From: Relationship between socioeconomic, demographic, health and social characteristics and ability to access reliable information on herbal and food supplements: analysis of Thai Health Literacy Survey 2019

Factors Having difficulty in accessing information
Crude OR 95% CI Adjusted OR 95% CI
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Highest completed education (reference group: tertiary education n = 2028) 51.4% reported having difficulty
 No education (n = 666) 29.14* 22.94 37 3.08* 2.24 4.22
 Primary education (n = 8404) 14.29* 12.53 16.29 3.46* 2.94 4.08
 Lower secondary education (n = 2057) 3.12* 2.68 3.64 1.93* 1.63 2.3
 Upper secondary education (n = 3104) 1.88* 1.62 2.17 1.44* 1.22 1.69
Level of adequacy of income (reference group: saving)
 Deprived 4.44* 3.76 5.23 1.71* 1.4 2.09
 Sometimes sufficient 2.65* 2.3 3.05 1.50* 1.26 1.78
 Often sufficient 1.66* 1.43 1.92 1.14 0.96 1.36
Occupation (reference group: student and others)
 Agriculture 10.53* 8.8 12.6 1.31* 1.01 1.7
 Unemployed 12.74* 10.57 15.34 1.21 0.93 1.57
 Business owner 4.12* 3.4 4.99 0.88 0.67 1.15
 Casual employment 5.63* 4.68 6.77 1.02 0.79 1.32
 Governmental officer 1.33* 1.04 1.71 0.71* 0.51 0.98
 Employees of private companies 1.09 0.82 1.44 0.8 0.56 1.13
Insurance scheme (reference group: private insurance and others)
 UCSa 3.36* 2.7 4.17 1.54* 1.19 2
 SSSb 0.84 0.66 1.08 1.16 0.87 1.55
 CSMBSc 2.45* 1.93 3.11 1.41* 1.06 1.89
Age group (reference group: 15–24 years old)
 25–45 years 1.87* 1.61 2.16 1.68* 1.37 2.07
 46–59 years 5.94* 5.17 6.83 3.48* 2.81 4.31
 60 years and above 18.55* 16.1 21.36 6.78* 5.43 8.47
Male 0.95 0.89 1.01 1.11* 1.03 1.2
Marital status (reference group: single)
 Married or living together 3.2* 2.94 3.48 1.09 0.97 1.23
 Separated or divorced 5.83* 5.21 6.53 1.19* 1.02 1.38
Reading ability (reference: fluent)
 Cannot read 8.84* 7.38 10.58 2.17* 1.5 3.13
 Can read but not fluent 5.98* 5.48 6.51 1.77* 1.48 2.13
Writing status (reference: fluent)
 Cannot write 9.1* 7.51 11.03 1.27 0.87 1.85
 Can write but not fluent 5.73* 5.29 6.21 1.22* 1.02 1.46
Presence of chronic diseases (reference group: don’t know because never received screening)
 No chronic diseases 1.07 0.99 1.16 0.87* 0.78 0.96
 Having diagnosed with chronic diseases 2.63* 2.42 2.86 1.01 0.91 1.13
Use of corrective eyewear 1.3* 1.22 1.39 0.84* 0.77 0.92
Having hearing impairment 3.23* 2.82 3.7 1.35* 1.15 1.58
Having community leadership roles 0.67* 0.62 0.73 0.57* 0.52 0.62
  1. * p-value < 0.05
  2. aUCS Universal Coverage Scheme, bSSS Social Security Scheme, cCSMBS Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme
  3. Nagelkerke R Square for accessing model = 0.40