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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for demographic and neighborhood conditions of children in our sample, stratified by high/low poverty status

From: Associations between neighborhood built, social, or toxicant conditions and child externalizing behaviors in the Detroit metro area: a cross-sectional study of the neighborhood ‘exposome’

  High poverty neighborhoods (n = 354 children) Low poverty neighborhoods (n = 364 children) Total (n = 720 children)
Demographics
 Ageb, mean (sd) 8.2 (1.6) 8.2 (1.4) 8.20 (1.49)
 Ethnicity, %
  White 61.0 86.3 73.9
  African American 28.8 5.5 16.9
  Asian 1.1 1.6 1.4
  Other 9.1 6.5 7.8
 Female, % 48.9 52.5 50.8
Built conditions
 Non-profits, mean (sd) 35.8 (30.3) 25.8 (21.4) 30.7 (26.6)
 Churches, mean (sd) 5.4 (3.9) 4.3 (4.2) 4.9 (4.1)
 Alcohol outlets, mean (sd) 282.2 (147.7) 192.4 (130.9) 236.1 (146.6)
 Percent area - greenspace, mean (sd) 4.2 (3.9) 4.7 (4.7) 4.4 (4.3)
 Percent area - agricultural land use, mean (sd) 4.1 (11.5) 7.9 (15.8) 6.1 (13.9)
 Percent area - vacant properties, mean (sd) 9.0 (4.8) 8.7 (4.8) 8.8 (4.8)
Social conditions
 Area deprivation indexa, mean (sd) 6.1 (2.8) 2.9 (2.3) 4.5 (3.0)
 Neighborhood povertyc, mean (sd) 28.4 (16.7) 5.6 (3.2) 16.8 (16.5)
 Social cohesiond, mean (sd) 102.8 (7.4) 105.5 (10.1) 104.0 (8.8)
 Social controld, mean (sd) 24.2 (2.3) 25.5 (1.8) 24.8 (2.2)
Toxicant conditions
 Total toxicants 1988-2016 in millions, mean (sd) 8.1 (12.8) 4.1 (9.1) 6.1 (11.2)
 Structures built before 1978 in 1000s, mean (sd) 42.1 (3.1) 2.1 (23.1) 31.5 (29.4)
 Percent area - industrial land use, mean (sd) 15.7 (5.2) 17.9 (3.2) 4.5 (3.7)
Health measures
 Oppositional defiant problemse, mean (sd) 3.4 (1.8) 2.9 (1.6) 3.1 (1.7)
 Conduct problemse, mean (sd) 1.5 (1.9) 1.4 (1.7) 1.5 (1.8)
  1. aRange 1-10, where 10 indicates high deprivation
  2. bRange 6 years to 11 years
  3. cThis is the percent of households with children living below poverty
  4. dHigher values indicate more cohesion and control, range 58 to 142 and 16.3 to 29, respectively
  5. eHigher values indicate child mental health problems, ranges (oppositional 0 to 10.3), (conduct 0 to 14)