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Table 1 Intervention framework: theoretical constructs, evidence-based behavior change strategies, practical application, and specific outcome measures

From: Using a multi-module web-app to prevent substance use among students at a Hispanic Serving Institution: development and evaluation design

Theoretical constructs Behavior change strategies Practical application Outcome measures
Attitudes/Knowledge Educational content - Identify potency, present legal facts via flip cards, quizzlets, videos, etc. - Substance-specific knowledge (4 items)
- Do you ever feel bad about your alcohol or drug use?
Perceived susceptibility Correct risk perceptions - Define what constitutes risky substance use.
- Present health risks of substance misuse and dependency risk via flip cards, quizzlets, videos, etc.
- What level of risk do you think people have of harming themselves physically or in other ways when they [use a substance]? (6 items)
Subjective norms Normative re-education - Guess percentage of peer use on campus; show actual vs. perceived use via pie charts.
- Inform how college substance use is less frequent than perceived.
- In the last 30 days, what percent of students do you think used [substance]? (14 items)
Self-efficacy Refusal skills - Examples of how to say “no” in a variety of scenarios. - I would be able to say no if a friend offered me [substance]. (2 items)
Personalized feedback - Self-assessment and individualized feedback.
Skills/knowledge for responsible use - Responsible use checklist.
Protective strategies - Identify healthy alternative activities and support (physical, mind-body, social).
- Checklist of healthy study habits.
- Links to virtual and on-campus support resources.
Goal setting - Write SMART goal for healthy strategies