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Table 1 Difference analysis between different atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk groups

From: Association between dietary fiber intake and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: a cross-sectional study of 14,947 population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

Characteristics Total (n = 14,947) Low risk group (n = 5735) Borderline risk group (n = 1082) Intermediate risk group (n = 3329) High risk group (n = 4801) Statistics P
Age, M (Q1, Q3) 46.00 (33.00, 60.00) 32.00 (25.00, 40.00) 43.00 (34.00, 50.00) 50.00 (41.00, 57.00) 64.00 (57.00, 70.00) χ2 = 8719.967  < 0.001
Gender, n (%)       χ2 = 533.159  < 0.001
Female 7764 (51.94) 3468 (60.47) 622 (57.49) 1821 (54.70) 1853 (38.60)   
Male 7183 (48.06) 2267 (39.53) 460 (42.51) 1508 (45.30) 2948 (61.40)   
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 29.37 ± 6.97 28.23 ± 7.23 30.24 ± 7.41 30.56 ± 7.15 29.70 ± 6.19 F = 94.140  < 0.001
Race, n (%)       χ2 = 264.033  < 0.001
Mexican Americans 2242 (15.00) 936 (16.32) 178 (16.45) 508 (15.26) 620 (12.91)   
Hispanics 1531 (10.24) 480 (8.37) 101 (9.33) 356 (10.69) 594 (12.37)   
Non-Hispanic whites 6183 (41.37) 2107 (36.74) 469 (43.35) 1416 (42.54) 2191 (45.64)   
Non-Hispanic blacks 3140 (21.01) 1290 (22.49) 202 (18.67) 643 (19.32) 1005 (20.93)   
Others 1851 (12.38) 922 (16.08) 132 (12.20) 406 (12.20) 391 (8.14)   
Marital status, n (%)       χ2 = 1902.546  < 0.001
Married 7776 (52.02) 2548 (44.43) 581 (53.70) 1844 (55.39) 2803 (58.38)   
Widowed 689 (4.61) 32 (0.56) 22 (2.03) 135 (4.06) 500 (10.41)   
Divorced/separation 2114 (14.14) 507 (8.84) 157 (14.51) 589 (17.69) 861 (17.93)   
Unmarried 4368 (29.22) 2648 (46.17) 322 (29.76) 761 (22.86) 637 (13.27)   
Education level, n (%)       χ2 = 331.585  < 0.001
 < high school 2899 (19.40) 806 (14.05) 203 (18.76) 727 (21.84) 1163 (24.22)   
High school/GED 3323 (22.23) 1085 (18.92) 262 (24.21) 769 (23.10) 1207 (25.14)   
 > high school 8725 (58.37) 3844 (67.03) 617 (57.02) 1833 (55.06) 2431 (50.64)   
Income family, n (%)       χ2 = 64.207  < 0.001
 < 20,000 $ 12,205 (81.66) 4844 (84.46) 892 (82.44) 2703 (81.20) 3766 (78.44)   
 ≥ 20,000 $ 2742 (18.34) 891 (15.54) 190 (17.56) 626 (18.80) 1035 (21.56)   
Smoking, n (%)       χ2 = 6.324 0.097
Yes 10,493 (70.20) 3980 (69.40) 757 (69.96) 2321 (69.72) 3435 (71.55)   
No 4454 (29.80) 1755 (30.60) 325 (30.04) 1008 (30.28) 1366 (28.45)   
Hypertension, n (%)       χ2 = 1857.847  < 0.001
Yes 4669 (31.24) 725 (12.64) 278 (25.69) 1216 (36.53) 2450 (51.03)   
No 10,278 (68.76) 5010 (87.36) 804 (74.31) 2113 (63.47) 2351 (48.97)   
Diabetes, n (%)       χ2 = 335.823  < 0.001
Yes 1695 (11.34) 310 (5.41) 132 (12.20) 510 (15.32) 743 (15.48)   
No 13,252 (88.66) 5425 (94.59) 950 (87.80) 2819 (84.68) 4058 (84.52)   
Metabolic syndrome, n (%)       χ2 = 916.488  < 0.001
Yes 12,957 (86.69) 5487 (95.68) 979 (90.48) 2855 (85.76) 3636 (75.73)   
No 1990 (13.31) 248 (4.32) 103 (9.52) 474 (14.24) 1165 (24.27)   
Use of high blood pressure medication, n (%)       χ2 = 575.659  < 0.001
Yes 905 (6.05) 65 (1.13) 47 (4.34) 204 (6.13) 589 (12.27)   
No 14,042 (93.95) 5670 (98.87) 1035 (95.66) 3125 (93.87) 4212 (87.73)   
Now increasing exercise, n (%)       χ2 = 1.019 0.797
Yes 567 (79.52) 87 (78.38) 40 (85.11) 159 (79.50) 281 (79.15)   
No 146 (20.48) 24 (21.62) 7 (14.89) 41 (20.50) 74 (20.85)   
SBP, mmHg, mean ± SD 122.67 ± 17.23 114.15 ± 12.14 119.23 ± 13.30 122.92 ± 15.16 133.44 ± 18.54 F = 1424.593  < 0.001
DBP, mmHg, mean ± SD 71.10 ± 12.15 68.72 ± 10.92 72.64 ± 11.25 73.12 ± 11.56 72.20 ± 13.59 F = 126.362  < 0.001
HDL mg/dl, mean ± SD 53.26 ± 16.12 56.07 ± 15.58 52.77 ± 16.01 51.15 ± 15.29 51.49 ± 16.85 F = 98.361  < 0.001
TC, mmol/l, mean ± SD 193.53 ± 41.65 179.56 ± 35.02 194.59 ± 35.97 201.79 ± 40.34 204.24 ± 46.07 F = 393.357  < 0.001
Total bilirubin, umol/L, M (Q1, Q3) 10.26 (6.84, 13.68) 10.26 (6.84, 13.68) 10.26 (6.84, 13.68) 10.26 (6.84, 11.97) 10.26 (8.55, 13.68) χ2 = 32.228  < 0.001
Cr, mg/dL, M (Q1, Q3) 0.84 (0.71, 0.99) 0.79 (0.67, 0.93) 0.82 (0.69, 0.96) 0.83 (0.71, 0.97) 0.90 (0.77, 1.07) χ2 = 826.562  < 0.001
Total energy, kcal, M (Q1, Q3) 1956.00 (1504.00, 2517.50) 1983.00 (1532.00, 2549.50) 1946.25 (1526.00, 2524.00) 1975.00 (1516.50, 2534.00) 1911.50 (1458.50, 2469.50) χ2 = 31.348  < 0.001
Total dietary fiber intake, g, M (Q1, Q3) 15.45 (10.75, 21.85) 15.40 (10.85, 21.60) 15.10 (10.70, 22.20) 15.30 (10.60, 21.90) 15.65 (10.75, 21.95) χ2 = 1.106 0.776
Dietary fiber density, 10 g/1000 kcal, M (Q1, Q3) 0.78 (0.58, 1.06) 0.78 (0.57, 1.03) 0.76 (0.58, 1,04) 0.77 (0.57, 1.05) 0.82 (0.60, 1.10) χ2 = 36.806  < 0.001
  1. BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HDL High-density lipoprotein, TC Total cholesterol, Cr Creatinine