Skip to main content

Table 2 Multivariable analysis of factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 mortality among LTCF residents, South Africa, 5 March 2020–31 July 2021 (n = 1504)

From: SARS-CoV-2 cases reported from long-term residential facilities (care homes) in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Case fatality ratio
n/N (%)
Unadjusted odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Adjusted odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Age group      
  0-39 years 8/400 (2.0) Reference   Reference  
  40-59 years 20/423 (4.7) 2.4 (1.1-5.6) 0.036 2.4 (1.0-5.5) 0.038
  60-79 years 58/456 (12.7) 7.1 (3.4-15.2) ≤0.001 7.6 (3.6-16.5) ≤0.001
  ≥ 80 years 52/225 (23.1) 14.7 (6.8-31.7) ≤0.001 18.2 (8.1-41.2) ≤0.001
Sexs      
  Female 59/692 (8.7) Reference    
  Male 78/812 (9.9) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 0.531   
Race/Ethnicity      
  Black 47/734 (6.4) Reference    
  Coloured 8/101 (7.9) 1.3 (0.6-2.8) 0.572   
  White 74/610 (12.1) 2.8 (1.3-6.2) 0.008   
  Indian 9/56 (16.1) 2.1 (1.4-3.0) ≤0.001   
Type of LTCF      
  Substance Abuse 9/241 (3.7) Reference    
  Frail Care Centre 16/123 (13.0) 3.9 (1.7-9.0) 0.002   
  Old age home 45/269 (16.7) 5.1 (2.5-11.0) ≤0.001   
  Psychiatric/Mental 47/657 (7.2) 2.0 (0.9-4.1) 0.065   
  Retirement village 21/214 (9.8) 2.8 (1.3-6.3) 0.012   
Wave period      
  Pre-wave 1 21/118 (18.3) Reference   Reference  
  Wave 1 70/811 (8.6) 0.4 (0.3-0.7) 0.002 0.3 (0.1-0.9) 0.023
  Post-wave 1 5/60 (8.3) 0.4 (0.1-1.1) 0.099 0.2 (0.05-0.8) 0.027
  Wave 2 25/241 (10.4) 0.5 (0.3-1.0) 0.051 0.3 (0.1-1.0) 0.059
  Post-wave 2 2/20 (10.0) 0.5 (0.1-2.4) 0.394 0.1 (0.02-0.9) 0.035
  Wave 3 15/254 (5.9) 0.3 (0.1-0.6) 0.001 0.2 (0.06-0.6) 0.004
Comorbid condition      
  1 comorbid condition 22/191 (11.5) Reference    
  2 comorbid conditions
≥ 3 comorbid conditions
10/60 (16.7)
5/24 (20.8)
1.5 (0.7-3.5)
2.0 (0.7-6.0)
0.300
0.202
  
Hypertension      
  No 108/1,280 (8.4) Reference    
  Yes 27/194 (13.9) 1.8 (1.1-2.8) 0.015   
Diabetes mellitus      
  No 123/1,410 (8.7) Reference    
  Yes 12/64 (18.8) 2.4 (1.3-4.6) 0.008   
Chronic cardiac disease      
  No 132/1,466 (9.0) Reference  
  Yes 3/8 (37.5) 2.7 (1.3-5.6) 0.006
Asthma/Chronic pulmonary disease      
  No 134/1,450 (9.2) Reference  
  Yes 1/24 (4.2) 0.4 (0.1-3.1) 0.407
Chronic renal disease      
  No 132/1,466 (9.0) Reference  
  Yes 3/8 (37.5) 6.1 (1.4-25.74) 0.014
Malignancy      
  No 134/1,465 (9.2) Reference  
  Yes 1/9 (11.1) 1.2 (0.2-10.0) 0.839
HIV      
  No 133/1,445 (9.2) Reference  
  Yes 2/29 (6.9) 0.7 (0.2-3.1) 0.671
Active Tuberculosis      
  No 135/1,474 (9.2) Reference  
  Yes 0 1
Past Tuberculosis      
  No 135/1,473 (9.2) Reference  
  Yes 0 1
Smoking      
  Never smoked 38/412 (9.2) Reference  
  Former smoker 8/70 (11.4) 1.3 (0.6-2.9) 0.461
  Current smoker 2/209 (1.0) 0.09 (0.02-0.4) 0.001
Province      
  Western Cape 14/64 (21.8) Reference   Reference  
  Eastern Cape 12/132 (9.1) 0.4 (0.2-0.8) 0.016 1.3 (0.5-3.1) 0.620
  Free State 30/225 (13.3) 0.5 (0.3-1.1) 0.097 4.2 (1.4-12.8) 0.012
  Gauteng 26/430 (6.1) 0.2 (0.1-0.5) ≤0.001 1.5 (0.5-4.7) 0.441
  KwaZulu-Natal 27/305 (8.9) 0.3 (0.2-0.7) 0.004 1.6 (0.5-5.0) 0.380
  Limpopo 2/35 (5.7) 0.2 (0.04-1.1) 0.052 1.5 (0.2-9.6) 0.655
  Mpumalanga 10/99 (10.1) 0.4 (0.2-0.9) 0.043 1.5 (0.4-4.8) 0.544
  Northern Cape 17/214 (7.9) 0.3 (0.1-0.7) 0.003 3.8 (1.2-12.6) 0.028