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Table 2 Dietary intakes of 2705 participants of the third and fourth survey of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study*

From: Dietary and lifestyle indices for hyperinsulinemia with the risk of obesity phenotypes: a prospective cohort study among Iranian adult population

Variables Total (n = 2705) Normal weight(n = 1604) Overweight-obese (n = 1101) P-value
Nutrient intake
 Energy (Kcal/d) 2329 ± 1003 2333 ± 1102 2300 ± 685 0.056
 Carbohydrate (% of energy) 57.6 ± 9.4 57.6 ± 10.9 57.5 ± 6.8 0.335
 Protein (% of energy) 14.5 ± 7.9 14.4 ± 10.0 14.6 ± 3.1 0.335
 Fat (% of energy) 31.6 ± 17.9 31.9 ± 22.6 31.2 ± 6.5 0.302
 Saturated fatty acids(% of energy) 10.1 (8.4—12.1) 10.1 (8.4—12.1) 9.9 (8.3—11.9) 0.154
 Mono unsaturated fatty acids(% of energy) 10.2 (8.7—12.1) 10.3 (8.7—12.1) 10.2 (8.7—12.1) 0.347
 Poly unsaturated fatty acids (% of energy) 5.9 (4.7—7.4) 5.9 (4.8—7.4) 5.8 (4.7—7.2) 0.293
Food groups
 Red meat (serving/1000 kcal) 0.05 (0.03 – 0.08) 0.04 (0.02—0.07) 0.04 (0.02—0.07) 0.964
 Processed meat(serving/1000 kcal) 0.01 (0.00 – 0.2) 0.01 (0.00—0.02) 0.01 (0.00—0.01) 0.001
 Poultry(serving/1000 kcal) 0.06 (0.04 – 0.11) 0.06 (0.03—0.10) 0.06 (0.03—0.11) 0.046
 Fish(serving/1000 kcal) 0.03 (0.01 – 0.05) 0.02 (0.01—0.05) 0.02 (0.01—0.05) 0.225
 Eggs(serving/1000 kcal) 0.09 (0.05 – 0.16) 0.04 (0.02—0.07) 0.09 (0.05—0.15) 0.864
 High-fat dairy products(serving/1000 kcal) 0.61 ± 0.40 0.59 ± 0.39 0.64 ± 0.41 0.001
 Low-fat dairy products(serving/1000 kcal) 0.46 ± 0.37 0.45 ± 0.36 0.48 ± 0.38 0.091
 Whole fruit(serving/1000 kcal) 0.77 ± 0.55 0.72 ± 0.52 0.84 ± 0.59  < 0.001
 Fruit juice(serving/1000 kcal) 0.02 (0.01 – 0.13) 0.01 (0.00—0.05) 0.02 (0.00—0.05) 0.827
 Green leafy vegetables(serving/1000 kcal) 0.13 (0.07 – 0.25) 0.11 (0.06—0.23) 0.15 (0.07—0.28)  < 0.001
 Tomatoes(serving/1000 kcal) 0.26 (0.13 – 0.43) 0.23 (0.12—0.39) 0.29 (0.16—0.49)  < 0.001
 French fries(serving/1000 kcal) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.02) 0.01 (0.00—0.02) 0.00 (0.00—0.01) 0.005
 Margarine(serving/1000 kcal) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.00) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.00) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.00) 0.409
 Butter(serving/1000 kcal) 0.18 (0.01 – 0.58) 0.22 (0.03—0.66) 0.13 (0.01—0.50)  < 0.001
 Coffee(serving/1000 kcal) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.01) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.01) 0.00 (0.00 – 0.01) 0.241
 Snacks(serving/1000 kcal) 0.07 (0.01 – 0.20) 0.09 (0.03 – 0.22) 0.06 (0.01 – 0.16) 0.006
 Salad dressing(serving/1000 kcal) 0.07 (0.03 – 0.15) 0.08 (0.03 – 0.16) 0.07 (0.02 – 0.14) 0.008
 High-energy beverages(serving/1000 kcal) 0.02 (0.00 – 0.06) 0.02 (0.00 – 0.06) 0.01 (0.00 – 0.05) 0.002
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD or as the median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and as percentages for categorical variables
  2. *Significant differences (p < 0.05) were obtained using an independent sample t-test for continuous variables