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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 2705 participants of the third and fourth survey of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study*

From: Dietary and lifestyle indices for hyperinsulinemia with the risk of obesity phenotypes: a prospective cohort study among Iranian adult population

Variables Total (n = 2705) Normal weight(n = 1604) Overweight-obese (n = 1101) P-value
Demographic-anthropometric data
 Age (years) 33.5 ± 12.2 30.9 ± 12.1 37.3 ± 11.2  < 0.001
Gender      < 0.001
 Men n (%) 890 (32.9) 611 (38.1) 278 (25.1)  
 Women n (%) 1815 (67.1) 993 (61.9) 823 (74.9)  
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.8 21.8 ± 2.1 28.0 ± 2.6  < 0.001
 Smoking (%) 258 (9.5) 183 (11.4) 75 (6.8)  < 0.001
 Physical activity (MET/hour/week) 60.6 (22.3 – 103.2) 60.6 (23.8 – 104.4) 60.3 (21.0 – 100.9) 0.325
 Education level (> 12 years) (%) 721 (26.5) 446 (27.8) 275 (25.0) 0.100
 Waist(cm) 80.3 ± 10.4 75.4 ± 8.1 87.5 ± 9.1  < 0.001
Biochemical-clinical data
  Fasting blood sugar(mg/dl) 85.6 ± 10.2 84.7 ± 10.0 86.9 ± 10.3  < 0.001
  Triglycerides (mg/dl) 91.3 ± 34.4 87.5 ± 34.7 96.8 ± 33.2  < 0.001
  HDL- cholesterol (mg/dl) 47.4 ± 10.2 46.6 ± 10.1 48.5 ± 10.1  < 0.001
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 104 ± 12 103 ± 12 106 ± 11  < 0.001
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 69.0 ± 8.7 67.7 ± 8.8 70.8 ± 8.3  < 0.001
Insulin Scores
  EDIH 0.17 (0.8 – 0.32) 0.18 (0.09 – 0.34) 0.16 (0.07 – 0.28)  < 0.001
  ELIH 1.23 ± 0.26 1.10 ± 0.21 1.46 ± 0.22  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD or as the median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and as percentages for categorical variables
  2. *Significant differences (p < 0.05) were obtained using chi-square for categorical variables and an independent sample t-test for continuous variables