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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Implementation and evaluation of an individualized physical exercise promotion program in people with manifested risk factors for multimorbidity (MultiPill-Exercise): a study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria References
Administrative - Insurance holder of the involved insurance company in the past two or more years prior t0a  
2–3 of the following diagnosis and/or risk factors:
Diagnosis Risk Factor  
Osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee: - Self-report of physician diagnosed life-time prevalence of knee and/or hip osteoarthritis [29]
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: - German diabetes risk score (GDRS) ≥ 57 points [30, 31]
Cardiovascular: - PROCAM-Score: 10-year myocardial infarct risk > 10% in the age- and sex-related reference group [32]
Overweight/Obesity: - BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 [33]
Ongoing Therapy - No or constant medicationb during the previous three months  
Exclusion criteria: (one or more positive answers lead to non-eligibility)  
Overall - End organ damagec
- Physical activity before the intervention meets more than 75% of the national physical activity recommendations for adults
- Self-reported personal fitness level is under 20 min of brisk walking
- Injuries/diagnoses that do not allow the use of the strength machines (acute herniated intervertebral disc, acute fractures, recent spinal surgeries, glaucoma with elevated intraocular pressure)
Osteoarthritis patients only: - Appointment for elective joint replacement  
Cardiovascular patients only: - Patients diagnosed with heart failure are excluded  
Overweight/Obesity patients only: - Physical prerequisites for training on the equipment are not given  
  1. a in case of recruitment difficulties due to this restriction, it will be reduced to a previous insurance period of 18 months
  2. b this refers to the medication in relation to the diagnoses of interest
  3. c damage of an organ caused by the primary condition requiring medical or invasive treatment of a physician (i.e. Stent, myocardial infarct, diabetic foot, gastric band, TEP)
  4. PROCAM-Score Prospective cardiovascular Muenster Study, t0: Baseline assessment