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Table 5 Characteristics of included publications by disease type: Other Non-Communicable Diseases

From: Systematic review on chronic non-communicable disease in disaster settings

  Country/Territory of Interest WHO region Type of study Target Population Years of observation Number of study participants Major findings
Amini (2010) [98] Iran EMRO Cross- sectional Iranian war victims blinded in both eyes 2007 250 conference attendees Quality of Life (QOL) scores in blind war victims decreased with increasing age and additional medical comorbidities
Armenian (1998) [83] Armenia European Prospective, nested case–control Survivors of the 1988 Earthquake in Armenia 1988–1992 35,043 employees of the Armenian Ministry of Health and their immediate families During a 4-year follow-up period, the highest number of deaths from all causes (including heart disease) occurred within the first 6 months following the earthquake; associated with extent of disaster-related damage and losses
Chan (2010) [99] Pakistan EMRO Cross sectional Face-to-face, household-based survey conducted 4 months after the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake in internally displaced camps near Muzafarabad city February 2006
4 months post-earthquake
167 households Although the proportion of the population with chronic conditions was similar across these studied camps, 85% of residents in the smallest unofficial camp had no available drugs to manage their chronic medical conditions as compared with their counterparts residing in larger rural unofficial (40%) and official camps (25%)
Chan (2009) [92] Pakistan EMRO Comparative descriptive study Patients ≥ 45 years who attended two different types of post-earthquake relief clinics during a 17-day field health needs assessment in response to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake February 2006
4 months post-earthquake
30,000 patients in a rural site, and 382 IDPs in a urban site The greatest gap in health services post-earthquake in both sites was non-communicable disease management. Clinical records reviewed in all study locations showed a systematic absence of documentation of common NCDs. In rural areas, older women were less likely to receive medical services while older men were less likely to access psychological services in both sites. During days when solely male doctors provided clinical services in the rural site, medical services utilization decreased by 30%
Hung (2013) [42] China Western Pacific Cross-sectional chart review Patients presenting during a 19 day period three weeks following the Sichuan earthquake Jun-08 2,034 patients Musculoskeletal, respiratory, and GI systems were top 3 problems and > 43% of patients met hypertension criteria
Khateri (2003) [100] Iran EMRO Cross-sectional retrospective survey Patients exposed to chemical weapons in Iran during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) 1997–2000 34,000 subjects Lesions of the lungs (42.5%), eyes (39.3%), and skin (24.5%) were the most common sites of involvement among mustard agent exposure survivors
Leeuw (2014) [101] Country of Asylum: Jordan, Lebanon
Country of Origin: Syria
EMRO Cross-sectional survey Syrian refugee households in Jordan and Lebanon 2013 3,202 refugees Impairments found in 22% of refugees and disproportionately affecting those over 60 years of age (70% with at least 1 impairment)
Li (2011) [102] China Western Pacific Cross-sectional survey Adults exposed to severe famine in utero or as children 2002 7,874 adults Adults exposed to severe famine while in utero or early childhood had increased risk of metabolic syndrome
Mateen (2012) [31] Country of Asylum: Jordan
Country of Origin: Iraq
EMRO Prospective observational Iraqi refugees seeking health care in Jordan 2010 7642 patients Chronic diseases like hypertension (22%) and diabetes (11%) were common and the most common reason for visit was respiratory illness (11%)
Mateen (2012) [103] 19 countries Africa, EMRO, South East Asia Retrospective chart review Refugees in camp settings globally 2008–2011 58,598 visits Chronic, noncommunicable diseases like epilepsy and cerebrovascular disease far exceeded (> 98%) those for neurologic infectious diseases
McKenzie (2015) [62] Country of Asylum:Jordan
Country of Origin: Syria, Iraq
EMRO Retrospective cohort Syrian & Iraqi refugees applying for emergency or exceptional medical care 2012–2013 223 refugees Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% of all Exceptional Care Committee applications and 2/3 of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care
Otoukesh (2012) [51] Country of Asylum: Iran
Country of Origin: Afghanistan
EMRO Cross-sectional Afghan refugees in Iran 2005–2010 23,152 refugees The most common health referral for those aged 15–59 years was ophthalmic diseases in females and nephropathies in males. In those aged 60 + it was ophthalmic diseases for both sexes
Redwood-Campbell (2006) [77] Indonesia South East Asia Prospective observational Patients registering in the ICRC field hospital in Banda Aceh 9 weeks after the tsunami Mar-05 271 patients 12% of clinic visits were directly related to the tsunami. The most common medical complaints were urological (19%), digestive (16%), respiratory (12%), and musculoskeletal (12%). 24% of patients had 4 or more depression/PTSD symptoms
Sibai (2001) [52] Lebanon EMRO Cross-sectional Representative cohort of men and women completing a health survey in Beirut, Lebanon during wartime 1983–1993 1567 subjects Total mortality rates were estimated at 33.7 and 25.2/1000 person years among men and women respectively. Leading cause of death was circulatory disease (60%) and cancer (15%) for both sexes
Strong (2015) [53] Country of Asylum: Lebanon
Country of Origin: Syria, Palestine
EMRO Cross Sectional Refugees over age 60 receiving assistance from social workers 2011–2013 210 refugees Most older refugees reported at least one non-communicable disease: hypertension (60%), diabetes (47%), heart disease (30%). 74% indicated at least some dependency on humanitarian assistance