Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of included publications by disease type: Chronic Respiratory Disease

From: Systematic review on chronic non-communicable disease in disaster settings

  Country/Territory of Interest WHO region Type of study Target Population Years of observation Number of study participants Major findings
Abul (2001) [66] Kuwait EMRO Retrospective chart review Patients admitted with asthma in Kuwait 2001 12,113 asthma patients during the pre-Gulf War period compared with 9,771 patients during the post-Gulf War period No significant difference between hospitalization or death rates pre and post Gulf War
Bijani (2002) [67] Iran EMRO Retrospective chart review Patients exposed to chemical weapons in northern Iran 1994—1998 220 patients Obstructive lung disease was a common finding amongst patients exposed to chemical weapons in Iran
Ebrahimi (2014) [68] Iran EMRO Retrospective chart review Patients with respiratory or cardiac diseases in Sanandaj, Iran March 2009—June 2010 Cardiac disease, but not respiratory disease, was significantly correlated with dust storm events
El-Sharif (2002) [69] West Bank/Palestinian Territories EMRO Retrospective chart review Schoolchildren in Ramallah District, Palestine Autumn of 2000 3,382 children Children from refugee camps appear to be at higher risk of asthma than children from neighboring villages or cities. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that the estimated risk of having wheezing in the previous 12 months was higher for those residing in refugee camps than those living in neighboring villages and cities
Forouzan (2014) [70] Iran EMRO Prospective observational Patients presenting with asthma or bronchospasm in western Iran Nov-13 2000 patients Many patients presented with bronchospasm after a thunderstorm
Hung (2013) [42] China Western Pacific Cross-sectional chart review Patients presenting during 19 days following the Sichuan earthquake Jun-08 2,034 patients Musculoskeletal, respiratory, and GI problems were the top 3 areas and > 43% of patients had BP in HTN range
Kunii (2002) [71] Indonesia South-East Asia Cross sectional Patients exposed to air pollution in the “haze disaster” in Indonesia September 1997 -October 1997 543 subjects Patients had increased respiratory issues after a large forest fire disaster, especially the elderly. Wearing a high quality face mask was protective (vs handkerchief or simple surgical mask)
Lari (2014) [72] Iran EMRO Cross sectional Patients exposed to sulphur mustard gas March 2010- April 2011 82 patients The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) was found to be a valid tool for assessment of health related quality of life in chemical warfare patients with COPD
Mirsadraee (2011) [73] Iran EMRO Retrospective Cohort Patients whose parents were exposed to chemical warfare 409 children The prevalence of asthma was not significantly different in the offspring of chemical warfare victims
Molla (2014) [74] Bangladesh South-East Asia Cross sectional Children 5 years of age in Dhaka with diarrhea and asthma September 2012 -November 2012 410 households The DALYs lost due to asthma and diarrhea were significantly different amongst the climate refugee community than a non refugee group
Naumova (2007) [75] Ecuador Americas Cross sectional chart review ED patients after a volcanic eruption in Quito, Ecuador January 2000 -December 2000 5,169 patients Rate of ED visits for respiratory conditions significantly increased in 3 weeks after eruption. Rates of asthma and asthma related diagnosis double during volcano “fumarolic activity”. 345 excess ED visits in 4 weeks
Guha-Sapir(2007) [76] Indonesia South East Asia Cross sectional Patients attending an International Committee of the Red Cross(ICRC) field hospital in Aceh, Indonesia, established immediately after the tsunami in 2004 2 January 15, 2004- January 31 2,004,005–2010 1,188 study participants Post tsunami, respiratory diseases were one of the most commonly recorded conditions (21.0%) and included acute asthma exacerbations
Redwood-Campbell (2006) [77] Indonesia South-East Asia Cross Sectional Patients registering in the ICRC field hospital in Banda Aceh after the tsunami Mar-05 271 patients 12% of the problems seen in the clinic 9 weeks after the tsunami were still directly related to the tsunami. Majority of patients were male, the problems were urologic, digestive, respiratory and musculoskeletal in that order. 24% had 4 or more depression/PTSD symptoms
Wright (2010) [78] Kuwait EMRO Cross sectional Patients in Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion December 2003—January 2005 5028 subjects Study suggested that those who reported highest stress exposure in the invasion were more than twice as likely to report asthma. Suggestive of correlation between war trauma and asthma