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Table 2 Characteristics of included publications by disease type: Cancer

From: Systematic review on chronic non-communicable disease in disaster settings

  Country/
Territory of Interest
WHO region Type of study Target Population Years of observation Number of study participants Major findings
Huynh (2004) [58] Vietnam Western Pacific Case control Vietnamese women hospitalized with cervical cancer June 1996—September 1996 145 women in southern Vietnam and 80 women in northern Vietnam The development of invasive cervical cancer was significantly associated with military service by husbands during the Second Indochinese War and with parity status. Geographic and temporal variation in cervical cancer rates among Vietnamese women was associated with the movement of soldiers
Khan (1997) [59] Country of Asylum: Pakistan
Country of Origin: Afghanistan
EMRO Cross sectional Patients from North West Pakistan and Afghan refugees attending the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Peshwar 1990—1994 13,359 patients
2988 were Afghan refugees
10,371 were adults from North West of Pakistan
In male Afghan refugees, esophageal cancer represented 16.6% of the cases, compared to only 4.6% of the cases in Pakistani residents. Both Pakistani and Afghani refugee women experienced breast cancer as the most common cancer
Li (2012) [60] China Western Pacific Retrospective cohort Birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine 1970–2009 Population of Zhaoyuan county during the 1970–1974 death survey and 2,830,866 during the 2005–2009 death survey The Zhaoyuan population, which experienced long-term nutritional deficiencies from childhood to adolescence, had increased risk for stomach cancer 15 to 20 years after the 1959–1961 Chinese famine. The birth cohorts who were exposed to famine or experienced malnutrition had higher stomach cancer mortality rates in later life than the birth cohorts not exposed to malnutrition
Marom (2014) [61] Philippines Western Pacific Case series Patients presenting with head and neck (H&N) tumors to a field hospital in the ‘sub-acute’ period following a typhoon November 2013 1844 adult patients examined, 85 (5%) presented with H&N tumors In a relief mission, despite the lack of clinical and pathological staging and questionable continuity of care, surgical interventions can be considered for therapeutic, palliative and diagnostic purposes
McKenzie (2015) [62] Country of Asylum: Jordan
Country of Origin: Iraq, Syria
EMRO Retrospective cohort UNHCR registered refugees (Iraqi/Syrian) in Jordan 2012—2013 223 refugees Brain tumors accounted for 13% (n = 29) of neuropsychiatric applications, and was the most expensive neuropsychiatric diagnosis overall and per applicant. The ECC denied six applications for reasons of eligibility, cost, and/or prognosis. Of the 20 approved applications, 15% (n = 3) were approved for less than the requested amount, receiving on average 39% of requested funds
Milojkovic (2005) [63] Croatia Europe Retrospective cohort Patients with corpus uteri and cervix uteri cancer and ovarian cancer treated in the Clinical Hospital Osijek 1984 -2002 1455 patients treated for gynecological cancer were analyzed Gynecologic cancer incidence according to age shows an increase tendency of cervical cancer in younger women in the post war period. The incidence of corpus cancer and ovary has not changed in the observed periods
Otoukesh (2012) [51] Country of Asylum: Iran
Country of Origin: Afghanistan
EMRO Cross sectional Afghan refugees in Iran 2005–2010 23,152 refugees Neoplasms represented 17% of referrals among Pashtun group
Shamseddine (2004) [64] Lebanon EMRO Ecological study Lebanese cancer patients following the 1975 -1990 Lebanese Civil War 1998 4388 cases Among males, the most frequently reported cancer was bladder (18.5%), followed by prostate (14.2%), and lung cancer (14.1%). In sharp contrast to countries worldwide, bladder cancer was notably high, in particular among males. Among females, breast cancer alone constituted around one third of the total cancer caseload in the country. This was followed by colon cancer (5.8%), and cancer of the corpus uteri (4.8%). The predominance of smoking related cancers highlights the importance of primary preventive strategies aimed at reducing smoking prevalence in Lebanon
Sibai (2001) [52] Lebanon EMRO Retrospective cohort Retrospective cohort study Lebanese aged 50 years and over residing in Beirut, Lebanon in 1983–1993 during the Lebanese Civil War 1983–1993 1567 cases In both sexes, the leading causes of death were non-communicable, mainly circulatory diseases (60%) and cancer (15%)
Telarovic (2006) [65] Croatia Europe Cross sectional Patients with CNS tumors admitted to the Department of Neurology of Pula General Hospital, Croatia during wartime January 1986-December 2000 364 patients There was a statistically significant increase of incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CNS tumors in war period versus the periods before and after war..Higher proportion of metastatic tumors than expected per the authors literature review. Authors relate to stress and PTSD