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Table 4 SARS-CoV-2 test positivity by demographic characteristics

From: Socioeconomic and immigration status and COVID-19 testing in Toronto, Ontario: retrospective cross-sectional study

Characteristics COVID-19 swab test Total
Negative Positive
N N Prevalence (%) P-value N
Immigration terciles Income Quintiles 337 4 1.17% 0.34 341
1(=lowest foreign-born population) 1(=lowest)
2 703 6 0.85% 709
3 892 10 1.11% 902
4 1659 18 1.07% 1677
5(=highest) 8262 68 0.82% 8330
2 1(=lowest) 2566 70 2.66% < 0.0001 2636
2 4776 75 1.55% 4851
3 6256 97 1.53% 6353
4 7686 122 1.56% 7808
5(=highest) 12,984 158 1.20% 13,142
3(=highest) 1(=lowest) 11,969 517 4.14% < 0.0001 12,486
2 9118 240 2.56% 9358
3 6252 115 1.81% 6367
4 4759 89 1.84% 4848
5(=highest) 2356 40 1.67% 2396
Total 80,575 1629 1.98% 82,204
  1. P-value assesses the existence of a linear trend in increasing positivity rate of COVID-19 swab test with decreasing income quintiles for each immigration tercile
  2. N = 82,204 in this table (N = 83,443 in Tables 1, 2, and 3) because missing data for immigration and income were removed prior to the analysis presented here