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Table 3 Association between days missed at work and Body Mass Index

From: Obesity- attributable costs of absenteeism among working adults in Portugal

  Mixed Effect Negative Binomial Regression  
  Model 1 (n = 8991) Model 2 (n = 6932) Model 3 (n = 8956) Model 4 (n = 7906)
  (BMI) (BMI + Chronic Diseases) (BMI + Lifestyle Habits) (BMI + Chronic Diseases + Lifestyle Habits)
  IRR (p-value) IRR (p-value) IRR (p-value) IRR (p-value)
BMI
  Normal Weight 1 1 1 1
  - - - -
  Underweight 1.18 (0.685)
[0.52–2.67]
1.33 (0.546)
[0.53–3.35]
1.13 (0.771)
[0.50–2.55]
1.34 (0.536)
[0.53–3.37]
  Overweight 1.14 (0.294)
[0.89–1.46]
0.97 (0.925)
[0.75–1.30]
1.14 (0.296)
[0.89–1.46]
1.01 (0.968)
[0.76–1.33]
  Obese 1.76 (0.001)
[1.26–2.46]
1.63 (0.012)
[1.12–2.38]
1.70 (0.002)
[1.21–2.39]
1.66 (0.009)
[1.13–2.44]
Time (years) 1.11 (0.005)
[1.03–1.20]
1.18 (0.003)
[1.06–1.32]
1.11 (0.013)
[1.02–1.20]
1.14 (0.037)
[1.001–1.28]
Gender
  Male 1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
  Female 2.83 (< 0.001)
[2.24–3.56]
1.88 (< 0.001)
[1.44–2.44]
2.45 (< 0.001)
[1.90–3.16]
1.79 (< 0.001)
[1.35–2.38]
Age group     
  18–24 years 1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
  25–34 years 2.24 (0.005)
[1.27–3.94]
2.01 (0.024)
[1.09–3.68]
2.32 (0.004)
[1.32–4.08]
2.05 (0.021)
[1.12–3.76]
  35–44 years 2.00 (0.013)
[1.16–3.46]
1.58 (0.123)
[0.88–2.83]
2.09 (0.008)
[1.21–3.62]
1.60 (0.116)
[0.89–2.89]
  45–54 years 2.07 (0.011)
[1.18–3.60]
1.37 (0.303)
[0.75–2.50]
2.20 (0.006)
[1.26–3.53]
1.40 (0.274)
[0.76–2.58]
  55–64 years 1.79 (0.059)
[0.98–3.29]
0.98 (0.953)
[0.50–1.92]
1.91 (0.038)
[1.04–3.53]
0.98 (0.962)
[0.50–1.94]
  65 or more years 1.64 (0.340)
[0.59–4.57]
1.06 (0.921)
[0.32–3.53]
1.61 (0.363)
[0.58–4.49]
0.98 (0.969)
[0.29–3.24]
NUTS II
  Lisboa 1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
  Porto 0.88 (0.421)
[0.64–1.20]
0.87 (0.447)
[0.62–1.24]
0.94 (0.715)
[0.66–1.24]
0.88 (0.460)
[0.62–1.24]
  Centro 1.02 (0.922)
[0.72–1.44]
1.04 (0.823)
[0.71–1.54]
1.02 (0.931)
[0.72–1.44]
1.01 (0.952)
[0.69–1.49]
  Alentejo 0.56 (0.038)
[0.32–0.97]
0.63 (0.144)
[0.34–1.17]
0.55 (0.034)
[0.32–0.96]
0.59 (0.089)
[0.32–1.08]
  Algarve 1.01 (0.982)
[0.52–1.95]
1.10 (0.806)
[0.52–2.34]
1.02 (0.947)
[0.53–1.99]
1.08 (0.837)
[0.51–2.31]
  Azores 0.57 (0.008)
[0.37–0.86]
0.60 (0.035)
[0.38–0.97]
0.58 (0.011)
[0.38–0.88]
0.59 (0.029)
[0.37–0.95]
  Madeira 0.54 (0.007)
[0.35–0.84]
0.52 (0.010)
[0.32–0.86]
0.57 (0.012)
[0.36–0.88]
0.51 (0.008)
[0.31–0.84]
Education level (years)
  9 or less years 1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
  10–12 years 2.17 (< 0.001)
[1.64–2.85]
2.08 (< 0.001)
[1.44–3.00]
2.02 (< 0.001)
[1.82–3.51]
1.99 (< 0.001)
[1.46–2.71]
  13 or more years 2.67 (< 0.001)
[1.93–3.70]
2.10 (< 0.001)
[1.54–2.85]
2.53 (< 0.001)
[1.82–3.51]
2.06 (< 0.001)
[1.41–2.99]
Chronic Diseases
  Mental - 2.63 (< 0.001)
[1.75–3.94]
- 2.49 (< 0.001)
[1.66–3.75]
  Rheumatic - 2.94 (< 0.001)
[2.07–4.18]
- 2.98 (< 0.001)
[2.10–4.24]
  Cancer - 6.58 (< 0.001)
[2.81–15.38]
- 6.43 (< 0.001)
[2.76–14.98]
  Allergies - 1.35 (0.057)
[0.99–1.84]
- 1.33 (0.074)
[0.97–1.81]
  Gastrointestinal - 1.67 (0.013)
[1.11–2.52]
- 1.69 (0.012)
[1.12–2.54]
  Lung disease - 2.86 (0.003)
[1.44–5.67]
- 2.85 (0.003)
[1.43–5.64]
  Renal Colic - 2.57 (< 0.001)
[1.52–4.36]
- 2.56 (< 0.001)
[1.52–4.34]
Alcohol
  Never - - 1
-
1
-
  Daily - - 0.50 (< 0.001)
[0.35–0.70]
0.63 (0.026)
[0.42–0.95]
  Occasionally - - 0.68 (0.003)
[0.53–0.87]
0.81 (0.137)
[0.61–1.07]
Smoking habits     
  Never - - 1
-
1
-
  Daily - - 1.33 (0.042)
[1.01–1.75]
1.34 (0.061)
[0.99–1.82]
  Occasionally - - 0.55 (0.078)
[0.28–1.07]
0.77 (0.486)
[0.36–1.62]
  In the past - - 1.61 (0.011)
[1.12–2.33]
2.01 (0.003)
[1.26–3.21]
Regular Exercise
  No - - 1
-
1
-
  Yes - - 0.74 (0.008)
[0.60–0.92]
0.79 (0.070)
[1.26–3.21]
  1. Notes:
  2. 1) All regressions were adjusted to age, sex, education level, NUTII and time
  3. 2) Chronic Disease means all diseases with p value ≤ 0.02 level of significance on the hypothesis tests, including mental disorder, rheumatic disease, cancer, gastrointestinal disease, allergies, lung disease, renal colic. 3) Lifestyle habits include alcohol, tobacco, and physical activity
  4. IRR Incidence rate ratio
  5. CI Confidence interval
  6. BMI Body Mass Index
  7. Normal Weight – 18.5 -24.9 kg/m2; BMI Overweight 25.0.29.9 kg/m2; BMI; Obese >  = 30.0 kg/m2 BMI
  8. NUTT—Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics