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Table 3 Predictors of Serious Injuries among school-going adolescents in three West African countries

From: Self-reported injuries and correlates among school-going adolescents in three countries in Western sub-Saharan Africa

Variables Benin   Ghana   Liberia  
  Adjusted OR, 95% CI p-value Adjusted OR, 95% CI p-value Adjusted OR, 95% CI p-value
Demographics
 Age (in years)
  11-17 years (Reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  18 years and above 0.66 (0.50, 0.88) 0.004 0.88 (0.72, 1.08) 0.227 1.08 (0.82, 1.42) 0.583
 Gender
  Female (Reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Male 1.24 (0.95, 1.61) 0.110 0.93 (0.77, 1.12) 0.459 1.01 (0.79, 1.30) 0.921
School/environmental factors
 Truancy 1.26 (0.93, 1.71) 0.131 1.14 (0.93, 1.40) 0.216 1.05 (0.81, 1.37) 0.709
 Physical attack 2.02 (1.48, 2.75) < 0.001 2.04 (1.68, 2.49) < 0.001 1.53 (1.17, 1.99) 0.002
 Physical fight 1.05 (0.77, 1.43) 0.771 2.13 (1.73, 2.62) < 0.001 1.67 (1.28, 2.19) < 0.001
 Bullying 2.00 (1.38, 2.91) < 0.001 1.68 (1.23, 2.30) 0.001 1.90 (1.22, 2.94) 0.004
 Peer support 0.75 (0.55, 1.01) 0.061 0.96 (0.78, 1.18) 0.701 1.12 (0.86, 1.46) 0.398
Family factors
 Parental monitoring 1.21 (0.91, 1.60) 0.188 1.08 (0.87, 1.34) 0.464 1.17 (0.88, 1.56) 0.271
 Parent-adolescent bonding 0.90 (0.67, 1.21) 0.484 0.94 (0.76, 1.17) 0.578 0.83 (0.62, 1.11) 0.208
 Parental understanding 0.92 (0.68, 1.24) 0.574 0.96 (0.78, 1.18) 0.688 0.96 (0.72, 1.28) 0.802
 Parental intrusion of privacy 0.98 (0.59, 1.65) 0.948 0.86 (0.66, 1.13) 0.271 0.78 (0.56, 1.09) 0.143
 Hunger 1.07 (0.77, 1.49) 0.691 1.25 (0.94, 1.67) 0.121 1.24 (0.83, 1.84) 0.296
Psychological factors
 Loneliness 1.10 (0.76, 1.60) 0.618 1.66 (1.28, 2.16) < 0.001 1.43 (0.74, 2.19) 0.097
 Anxiety 1.52 (1.11, 2.07) 0.008 1.32 (0.99, 1.76) 0.058 1.35 (0.96, 1.91) 0.087
Personal and lifestyle factors
 Physical activity 1.08 (0.73, 1.61) 0.701 1.21 (0.98, 1.49) 0.071 1.54 (1.17, 2.02) 0.002
 Sexual behavior 1.23 (0.93, 1.64) 0.144 1.19 (0.94, 1.50) 0.152 0.76 (0.57, 1.01) 0.055
 Methamphetamine use 1.09 (0.42, 2.78) 0.862 1.83 (1.07, 3.13) 0.027 0.41 (0.16, 1.03) 0.057
 Cannabis use 2.20 (0.76, 6.36) 0.146 1.71 (0.88, 3.33) 0.111 3.23 (1.32, 7.87) 0.010
 Alcohol use 1.46 (1.13, 1.89) 0.004 1.24 (0.89, 1.71) 0.198 1.39 (1.01, 1.93) 0.048
 Cigarette smoking 0.98 (0.53, 1.81) 0.949 0.57 (0.31, 1.06) 0.074 1.13 (0.56, 2.27) 0.733
 Having a close friend 1.17 (0.79, 1.71) 0.433 1.42 (1.06, 1.89) 0.017 1.30 (0.87, 1.93) 0.201
Hosmer–Lemeshow GOF test (sig) 9.24 (0.322)   7.69(0.464)   12.85 (0.117)  
McFadden’s pseudo R2 0.064   0.098   0.065  
  1. GOF Goodness of fit