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Table 2 Study outcomes of interest and key findings

From: Examining the impact of economic abuse on survivors of intimate partner violence: a scoping review

Author (Publication year) Type of analysis Outcomes of interest Measurement of outcome Key finding(s)
Adams & Beeble (2019) [20] Multivariate Quality of life 9-item Quality of Life Scale adapted for use with survivors [56] Within-woman change in EA was negatively associated with change in quality of life over time
Adams et al. (2008) [2] Multivariate Economic hardship 13-item Economic Hardship Index developed for study EA was positively associated with economic hardship
Adams et al. (2015) [3] Multivariate Perceived financial resources Adequacy of Financial Support Scale [57] EA was negatively associated with baseline financial resources; Within-woman change in EA over time was negatively associated with change in financial resources
Adams et al. (2020) [21] Multivariate Material dependency One (1) item asking to what extent survivor relies on the financial resources of their partner Economic restriction was positively associated with material dependence; EA was positively associated with outstanding debt
Outstanding debt 6-item index asking participants about what they currently owed money on (e.g., student loan)
Adams et al. (2020) [22] Multivariate Credit damage One (1) item asking if credit report or credit score has been hurt by the actions of their partner Coerced debt significantly predicted credit damage and financial dependence
Financial dependence One (1) item asking if individual stayed in relationship longer than they wanted to due to financial concerns
Antai et al. (2014) [23] Multivariate Psychological distress One (1) item asking whether the individual experienced mental health symptoms (e.g., depression) as a result of husband’s acts Two of four EA items associated with greater odds of suicide attempt; Two of the EA items were associated with greater odds of psychological distress; One EA item associated with lower odds of psychological distress
Suicide attempt One (1) item asking if individual ever attempted suicide as a result of husband’s acts
Bulut et al. (2017) [24] Bivariate Postpartum depression 10-item Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale [58] No significant differences in postpartum depression among women exposed to EA compared to those who were not
Cardenas et al. (2021) [25] Multivariate Quality of life 9-item Quality of Life Scale adapted for use with survivors [56] Economic control was significantly and negatively associated with quality of life; however, relationship was no longer significant after controlling for economic empowerment indicators
Davila et al. (2021) [26] Multivariate Depression 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) [59] EA did not lead to a significant increase in R2 for depression, anxiety, and PTSD
Anxiety 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7
(GAD-7) [60]
PTSD 9-items adapted from National Comorbidity Survey [61]
Gibbs et al. (2018) [27] Bivariate Depression 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) [59] Experiencing any EA was significantly associated with increased depression scores; experienced two or more forms of EA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation
Suicidal ideation One (1) item asking if individual has thought about ending their life in the past 4 weeks
Gottlieb & Mahabir (2021) [28] Multivariate Mother’s criminal justice involvement One (1) item that asks individual if they had been charged with a crime or booked by police for anything other than a minor traffic violation in the past 4 years Odds of experiencing criminal justice involvement were higher for mothers experiencing EA
Gul et al. (2020) [29] Bivariate Contentment with life 5-item Contentment with Life Scale [62] EA was not significantly associated with contentment with life nor physical or emotional abuse toward child
Physical or emotional abuse toward child Two (2) items asking individuals if they had applied physical violence or emotional violence to their child when they are angry with their husbands due to their behaviors
Gurkan et al. (2020) [30] Bivariate Pregnancy symptoms 41-item Pregnancy Symptoms Inventory (PSI) [63] Fatigue and mental health symptom scores were higher for women experiencing EA
Haj-Yahia (2000) [31] Multivariate Self-esteem Adapted version of Index of Self Esteem (ISE) [64] The more EA experienced the lower their self-esteem and higher their anxiety and depression
Anxiety Adapted version of Costello-Comrey Depression and Anxiety Scale [65]
Depression
Hamdan-Mansour et al. (2011) [32] Bivariate Psychological wellbeing 18-item Psychological Well-Being Scale Short Form [66] Two of six domains of psychological wellbeing (self-acceptance and environmental mastery) were significantly negatively associated with EA
Huang et al. (2013) [33] Multivariate Union formation Multiple items (e.g., marital status, cohabitation status) were used to create four mutually exclusive relationship categories EA at Year 1 was associated with lower odds of being married or cohabiting at Year 5
Huang et al. (2015) [34] Multivariate Early delinquency Sum of 17 delinquent acts (e.g., run away from home) from the “Things that you have done” scale modeled after the National Youth Survey [67] Experiencing EA was positively associated with child delinquency at 9 years old, as well as negatively associated with parental involvement
Parental involvement Average of individual’s engagement in eight parenting activities (e.g., reading stories)
Child neglect 10-item Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale [68]
Physical punishment
Jewkes et al. (2003) [35] Multivariate Discussion of HIV in relationship Questions on whether the individuals had ever discussed HIV with their partner and whether they had suggested condom use to their partners Suggesting condom use in the past year was positively associated with financial abuse
Condom use
Kanougiya et al. (2021) [36] Multivariate Depression Patient Health Questtionaire-9 (PHQ-9) [69] Women who experienced EA had higher odds of experiencing depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation
Anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) [60]
Suicidal ideation Two (2) items asking whether the individual had considered attempting suicide or ever attempted suicide in the past 12 months
Kapiga et al. (2017) [37] Multivariate Psychological distress symptoms Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) [70] Women experience EA were significantly more likely to report symptoms of psychological distress
Johnson (2021) [38] Multivariate Material hardship 11-item index asking individuals about their ability to meet basic financial needs in the past 12 months (e.g., go hungry) EA was positively associated with material hardship
Nicholson et al. (2018) [39] Multivariate Peer bullying Four (4) items from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement III Presence of EA at Year1 and Year 3 was associated with higher levels of peer bullying at Year 9
Postmus et al. (2012) [40] Multivariate Parenting engagement Average of individual’s engagement in eight parenting activities (e.g., reading stories) Mothers at Year 1 who experienced EA had higher odds of experiencing depression and using spanking as a form of punishment at Year 5
Use of spanking Frequency with which mother spanked child when they misbehaved or acted up in the past 1 month
Maternal depression Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF) [71]
Postmus et al. (2012b) [4] Multivariate Economic self-sufficiency 15-item Economic Self-Sufficiency Scale [72] Experiencing any form of EA compared to no EA was associated with a decrease in economic self-sufficiency
Postmus et al. (2021) [41] Multivariate Food insecurity One (1) item that asked participants how often people in their home go without food due to lack of money Experiencing EA was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting food insecurity and an increase in depressive symptoms
Depression 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) [59]
Sauber et al. (2020) [42] Multivariate PTSD 17-item civilian version of the PTSD Checklist (PLC-C) [73] Economic control was positively associated with PTSD and negatively associated with economic self-sufficiency; Employment sabotage was positively associated with depressive symptoms
Depression 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) [59]
Economic self-sufficiency 15-item Economic Self-Sufficiency Scale [72]
Stockl & Penhale (2015) [43] Multivariate Physical health 50-items that asked women about physical and psychological health, history of injuries, and weight problems EA was associated with greater odds of experiencing gastrointestinal syndromes, psychosomatic symptoms, pelvic problems, allergies, and psychological problems in the past year, as well as problems to keep weight
Mental health
Stylianou (2018) [44] Multivariate Depression 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) [59] EA was positively associated with depression
Tenkorang & Owusu (2019) [45] Multivariate Cardiovascular health One (1) item asking if participants had ever been told by a doctor that they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or stroke Employment sabotage was positively associated with psychosocial health issues; Economic exploitation was positively associated with worse psychosocial health and greater odds of cardiovascular diseases; Economic deprivation was positively associated with worse psychosocial health and greater odds of cardiovascular diseases
Overall health One (1) item that asked participants to describe their health in general
Psychosocial health 11-items that asked participants if they had experienced a range of mental health symptoms (e.g., felt nervous)
Usta et al. (2007) [46] Bivariate Common health complaints in general practice Participants were asked to indicate how frequently they experienced complaints common in general practice (e.g., headache) EA was positively correlated with frequency of heart palpitations and physical complaints
Voth Schrag (2015) [47] Multivariate Material hardship 11-item index asking individuals about their ability to meet basic financial needs in the past 12 months (e.g., go hungry) Reporting EA was associated with a greater likelihood of depression and increased odds of experiencing material hardship
Depression Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF) [71]
Voth Schrag et al. (2019) [48] Multivariate PTSD 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) [74] EA was associated with increased depression, PTSD, and economic hardship
Depression 7-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Short Form (CES-D-SF) [75]
Economic hardship 13-item Economic Hardship Index [2]
Voth Schrag et al. (2020) [49] Multivariate Economic hardship 13-item Economic Hardship Index [2] Higher levels of EA were associated with higher levels of economic hardship
Yau et al. (2020) [50] Multivariate Anxiety 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) [76] EA was associated with greater odds of anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms
Depression
Psychosomatic symptoms 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire-15 [77]
Yunus et al. (2017) [51] Bivariate Mortality Mortality was tracked via phone calls with participants or their families followed by cross checking Mortality was highest among individuals who experienced EA