Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of family socio-demographic, maternal mental health, pregnancy and child, postnatal and MCHAT score variables by screen exposure on survey-weighted data (%), ELFE cohort, France, 2011–2013

From: TV, computer, tablet and smartphone use and autism spectrum disorder risk in early childhood: a nationally-representative study

Variables Tv/computer/tablet/smartphone use
(N = 12 950)
 
Family socio-demographic characteristics Rarely/never (1714) Monthly
(N = 521)
Weekly
N = 2517)
Daily
(N = 8198)
P-value
Maternal age: ≥ 30 years 55.7% 59.6% 59.8% 49.8%  < .0001
Paternal age: ≥ 30 years 67.6% 73.4% 72.9% 71.1%  < .0001
Mother born in France 88.3% 89.8% 86.3% 80.8%  < .0001
Father born in France 87.3% 87.4% 86.8% 80.5%  < .0001
Mother’s educational level       < .0001
No diploma 6.1% 2.0% 6.8% 10.1%
  < Bachelor’s degree 38.9% 29.0% 30.3% 45.1%
Bachelor’s degree 16.6% 18.4% 20.8% 19.9%
  ≥ Master’s degree 38.4% 50.5% 42.0% 24.9%
Number of children in the household       < .0001
1 child 42.5% 46.5% 40.0% 44.4%
2–3 children 51.0% 50.5% 53.5% 48.4%
  ≥ 4 children 51.0% 50.5% 53.5% 48.4%
Maternal residential area       < .0001
Greater Paris Region 19.9% 23.7% 20.6% 19.5%
Paris and suburbs 19.4% 16.2% 15.2% 18.5%
North-West 5.1% 3.6% 5.9% 7.9%
East 7.7% 6.9% 7.8% 9.0%
West 16.5% 16.9% 16.5% 13.3%
South-West 8.4% 6.4% 9.7% 8.3%
Centre-East 12.2% 16.0% 11.5% 10.9%
South-East 10.8% 10.4% 12.8% 12.7%
Paternal residential area       < .0001
Greater Paris Region 19.8% 23.5% 20.7% 19.4%
Paris Basin 19.6% 16.3% 15.1% 18.5%
North-West 5.1% 3.6% 5.9% 7.9%
East 7.7% 6.9% 7.8% 9.0%
West 16.5% 16.9% 16.8% 13.2%
South-West 8.4% 6.4% 9.6% 8.4%
Centre-East 12.2% 16.0% 11.5% 10.9%
South-East 10.8% 10.4% 12.7% 12.6%
Household monthly income       < .0001
  < 1,423 euros 9.1% 5.0% 8.1% 1.5%
1,423–1,996 euros 7.4% 8.2% 6.7% 8.3%
  > 1,996 euros 83.4% 86.8% 85.1% 76.7%
Maternal depression 12.1% 10.8% 13.0% 15.3%  < .0001
Pregnancy and child characteristics
Child’s sex (female) 48.2% 54.0% 47.8% 49.8%  < .0001
Child’s age at interview       < .0001
  ≤ 24 months 19.4% 19.3% 18.9% 18.3%
25 months 29.2% 34.7% 34.0% 33.6%
26 months 25.4% 27.7% 28.2% 27.5%
  > 26 months 25.9% 18.3% 19.7% 20.6%
Twin birth 6.0% 3.3% 2.3% 3.1%  < .0001
Season of birth       < .0001
Spring 18.7% 25.1% 22.6% 22.0%
Summer 31.1% 29.4% 27.8% 24.9%
Autumn 25.0% 18.7% 24.9% 27.8%
Winter 25.3% 26.8% 24.6% 25.3%
Premature birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) 5.1% 7.0% 5.0% 5.2%  < .0001
Birth weight for gestational age       < .0001
Small (< 10 percentile) 3.5% 3.7% 1.5% 2.2%
Average (10–90 percentile) 93.6% 94.0% 95.3% 95.0%
Large (> 90 percentile) 2.8% 2.2% 3.1% 2.8%
Apgar score (good) 98.4% 99.9% 99.1% 98.6%  < .0001
Postnatal characteristics
Childcare arrangements       < .0001
Parents or family member 39.8% 28.1% 32.1% 46.5%
Centre-based care 22.2% 24.8% 24.8% 18.1%
Nanny or professional 38.0% 47.1% 43.1% 35.3%
Activities with the child       < .0001
  ≤ 4 activities 7.5% 83.7% 69.6% 7.1%
5–6 activities 16.6% 15.1% 15.5% 16.6%
7–8 activities 25.4% 25.4% 27.8% 28.0%
  ≥ 9 activities 50.4% 51.1% 49.7% 48.3%
Risk of ASD       < .0001
Low 77.3% 77.9% 78.0% 75.2%
Intermediate 21.4% 21.3% 21.3% 23.9%
High 1.2% 0.8% 0.6% 0.9%