Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of important RTW factors and effective VR interventions according to our expert panel

From: Return to work factors and vocational rehabilitation interventions for long-term, partially disabled workers: a modified Delphi study among vocational rehabilitation professionals

Factors associated with RTW (> 80%) Factor that can be targeted using VR interventions (> 80%) VR interventions that are effective in targeting a factor (> 70%)
Motivation to RTW [18] yes E (89%)1, G (95%)2, I (90%)2, R (90%)2, F (85%)2, K (85%)2, L (80%)2, H (75%)2
Illness perceptionb yes G(72%)1, H (95%)2, I (95%)2
Societal participationb yes F (95%)1, E (95%)2, R (95%)2, G (85%)2, H (70%)2
Importance of work [18] yes F (90%)2, G (90%)2, R (90%)2, K (85%)2, E (85%)2, L (70%)2
Family issuesb yes D (74%)1, H (85%)2, G (80%)2, U (70%)2
Financial problemsb [17] yes D (95%)1
History of substance abuseb yes None
Recent life eventsa yes H (90%)2, D (85%)2, T (80%)2
Job application skillsb yes N (89%)1
Copingb yes H (100%)2, G (90%)2, E (85%)2, I (85%)2, T (80%)2
Job self-efficacy [16] yes G (72%)1, I (72%)1, L (72%)1, R (72%)1
Fear avoidance behaviour [19] yes G (83%)1
Social network [16] yes F (84%)1
Willing to make concessions [16] yes None
Reintegration services already started in the pasta yes None
Employee skills [17] yes J (83%)1
RTW self-efficacy [18] yes H (72%)1, L (72%)1, R (72%)1
Self-esteem [17] yes G (79%)1
RTW expectations [16, 18] yes None
Self-sufficiencyb yes None
Quality of life [19] yes None
Unhealthy lifestyle [16] yes None
Caring for childrena yes None
Experiences at old workplaceb yes None
Unemployment[17] yes Not applicable
Perceived general health [16, 21] yes G (78%)1, I (78%)1, H (72%)1
Work-life balanceb yes None
Sense of responsibilityb yes None
Work ability [17, 18] yes None
Previously been in contact with the law yes None
Knowledge of the labour marketa yes L (78%)1
Secondary gain of illnessa yes E (79%)1
Job search behaviourb yes N (83%)1, L (78%)1
Job search intensity [16] yes L (72%)1, M (72%)1
Volunteer work [17] yes Not applicable
Understanding of the Dutch languageb no  
Language proficiencyb no  
Social support (outside of work) [18] no  
Alcohol/Substance abuse [17] no  
Secure housinga no  
Compensation claim for personal injurya no  
Diplomasb no  
Main wage earner [17, 21] no  
Pain [19,20,21] no  
Treatmentb no  
Income [21] no  
Willingness to learnb no  
Disability rateb no  
Social norms regarding RTW [16] no  
Transportationb no  
Objection or appeal to decision for disability pensionb no  
Work historyb no  
Level of education [18] no  
(Re-)trainingb no  
Health transition [19] no  
(Informal) Care [17] no  
Age [16, 18, 20, 21] no  
Time since last working daya no  
  1. aFactor added based on suggestions by experts in round 1
  2. bFactor was retrieved from conversations with professionals
  3. cFactors were ranked based on 1) if they could be targeted with a VR intervention and 2) the percentage of consensus if a factor is associated with the RTW of a long-term disabled worker
  4. 1Consensus was reached in round 4 VR interventions for which consensus was reached in round 4 are listed before VR interventions for which consensus was reached in the fifth round
  5. 2Consensus was reached in round 5
  6. (A) Informing the disabled worker about the disability benefit or the re-integration process; (B) Professional (multidisciplinary) consultation to optimize the service offered to the disabled worker; (C) Assessing vocational needs; (D) Referral to services offered by other organizations; (E) Increasing motivation; (F) Improving societal participation; (G) Improving self-image and self-knowledge; (H) Increasing psychological resilience; (I) Improving vitality and physical resilience; (J) Strengthening employee skills; (K) Identifying what the disabled worker wants to do in terms of work; (L) Identifying what the disabled worker can do in terms of work; (M) Helping to search for vacancies; (N) Improving skills and helping with applying for a job; (O) Mediating; (P) Workplace adjustments or support; (Q) Training; (R) Increasing work experience; (S) Providing facilities; (T) Cognitive behavioural therapy; (U) Multidisciplinary interventions; (V) Individual Placement and Support (IPS). A description of the VR interventions can be found in Supplement 3. The VR interventions were assigned a letter based on the order in which we presented them to the participants during the Delphi