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Table 3 The average consumption, nutritional quality, environmental impact and food costs aspects per 2000 kilocalories consumed foods and drinks by degree of processing for the Dutch population

From: Evaluation of foods, drinks and diets in the Netherlands according to the degree of processing for nutritional quality, environmental impact and food costs

  Weight (g)   Energy (kcal)  
Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value1  Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value
All 3039 (3006, 3073) 2258 2801 3499   2000 (2000, 2000) 2000 2000 2000  
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 442 (434, 450) 243 396 576   372 (366, 379) 215 346 489  
 Processed culinary ingredients 11 (10, 11) 1 6 16 *** 63 (61, 65) 7 40 93 ***
 Processed 78 (76, 80) 34 65 108 *** 177 (173, 181) 83 155 246 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 456 (452, 461) 353 439 533 *** 1107 (1099, 1115) 928 1117 1292 ***
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 1510 (1477, 1542) 770 1304 1993   96 (93, 99) 11 71 144  
 Processed 106 (100, 113) 0 0 130 *** 62 (59, 66) 0 0 84 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 437 (423, 450) 93 314 669 *** 122 (118, 127) 7 76 186 ***
  Mono and disaccharides (g)    Sodium (mg)  
Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value
All 105 (104, 107) 77 102 130   2295 (2275, 2315) 1850 2189 2648  
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 19 (19, 20) 6 15 28   169 (164, 175) 57 114 207  
 Processed culinary ingredients 5 (4, 5) 0 0 5 *** 3 (2, 3) 0 0 0 ***
 Processed 2 (1, 2) 0 0 2 *** 389 (379, 398) 156 320 538 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 42 (41, 42) 26 39 54 *** 1596 (1578, 1614) 1198 1521 1922 ***
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 12 (12, 12) 1 9 18   89 (86, 92) 24 62 125  
 Processed 1 (1, 1) 0 0 0 *** 4 (4, 5) 0 0 6 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 25 (24, 26) 0 14 37 *** 45 (43, 47) 1 17 61 ***
  SFA (g)    Fibre (g)   
Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value
All 28.2 (28.0, 28.4) 23.3 28.0 32.4   19.0 (18.9, 19.2) 15.0 18.4 22.4  
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 3.1 (3.0, 3.2) 0.9 2.1 4.2   6.4 (6.2, 6.5) 3.0 5.5 8.5  
 Processed culinary ingredients 1.6 (1.5, 1.7) 0.0 0.4 1.6 *** 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 0.0 0.0 ***
 Processed 6.4 (6.2, 6.6) 2.4 5.3 9.2 *** 0.8 (0.8, 0.9) 0.0 0.1 1.0 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 15.3 (15.1, 15.5) 11.3 15.1 18.8 *** 11.1 (11.0, 11.2) 8.5 10.9 13.4 ***
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 1.4 (1.4, 1.5) 0.0 0.5 2.2   0.2 (0.2, 0.2) 0.0 0.0 0.3  
 Processed 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 0.0 0.0 *** 0.2 (0.2, 0.2) 0.0 0.0 0.0 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 0.4 (0.4, 0.4) 0.0 0.0 0.1 *** 0.3 (0.3, 0.3) 0.0 0.0 0.2 ***
  Protein (g)    GHG emissions (kg CO2-eq)   
Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value
All 75.3 (74.8, 75.9) 63.1 72.6 85.2   4.72 (4.69, 4.77) 3.80 4.50 5.41  
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 23.2 (22.7, 23.7) 10.4 20.0 32.1   1.40 (1.36, 1.43) 0.59 1.09 1.85  
 Processed culinary ingredients 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 0.0 0.0 *** 0.05 (0.05, 0.05) 0.00 0.02 0.06 ***
 Processed 11.1 (10.8, 11.4) 4.5 9.3 15.6 *** 0.59 (0.57, 0.60) 0.26 0.50 0.82 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 33.1 (32.8, 33.4) 25.4 32.1 39.5 *** 1.70 (1.68, 1.73) 1.08 1.53 2.14 ***
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 6.0 (5.8, 6.1) 1.1 3.8 9.2   0.55 (0.53, 0.56) 0.24 0.46 0.77  
 Processed 0.3 (0.3, 0.3) 0.0 0.0 0.1 *** 0.13 (0.12, 0.13) 0.00 0.00 0.17 ***
vUltra-processed (UPD) 1.7 (1.6, 1.8) 0.0 0.1 2.0 *** 0.32 (0.31, 0.33) 0.05 0.21 0.46 ***
  Blue water use (m3)    Food costs (€)  
Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 P-value
All 0.139 (0.137, 0.141) 0.084 0.120 0.171   4.32 (4.27, 4.36) 3.31 4.09 4.98  
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 0.048 (0.046, 0.049) 0.018 0.035 0.061   1.32 (1.29, 1.35) 0.60 1.09 1.75  
 Processed culinary ingredients 0.007 (0.006, 0.007) 0.000 0.001 0.005 *** 0.02 (0.02, 0.03) 0.00 0.01 0.03 ***
 Processed 0.009 (0.008, 0.009) 0.003 0.006 0.009 *** 0.44 (0.43, 0.46) 0.18 0.34 0.60 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 0.026 (0.025, 0.026) 0.017 0.024 0.031 *** 1.24 (1.22, 1.25) 0.90 1.19 1.51 ***
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 0.038 (0.037, 0.040) 0.009 0.020 0.053   0.63 (0.62, 0.65) 0.28 0.53 0.85  
 Processed 0.004 (0.004, 0.004) 0.000 0.000 0.004 *** 0.23 (0.22, 0.25) 0.00 0.00 0.33 ***
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 0.006 (0.006, 0.007) 0.001 0.003 0.008 *** 0.42 (0.41, 0.44) 0.07 0.27 0.60 ***
  1. 1 Assesses the difference with the reference unprocessed or minimally processed food or drinks;
  2. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01 *** < 0.001