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Table 1 The average nutritional quality, environmental impact and costs aspects per 100 g foods and drinks in the DNFCS 2012–2016 by degree of processing

From: Evaluation of foods, drinks and diets in the Netherlands according to the degree of processing for nutritional quality, environmental impact and food costs

  Energy (kcal)/100 g Mono and disaccharides (g)/100 g
N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75
All 2159 243 (235, 251) 71 211 368 2159 10.7 (10.0, 11.5) 0.4 3.1 11.9
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 481 150 (136, 164) 36 105 189 481 4.9 (4.0, 5.9) 0.0 1.6 4.5
 Processed culinary ingredients 37 664 (575, 752) 396 737 899 37 23.8 (10.2, 37.4) 0.0 0.2 28.2
 Processed 358 249 (228, 271) 83 194 355 358 3.7 (2.8, 4.5) 0.0 0.6 4.0
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 1022 313 (303, 323) 194 302 413 1022 16.1 (14.9, 17.4) 1.3 5.3 25.3
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPD) 82 75 (50, 99) 35 47 68 82 7.3 (5.3 9.4) 2.1 5.1 9.7
 Processed 18 83 (59, 107) 47 66 111 18 4.9 (2.4, 7.5) 0.9 3.1 6.0
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 161 67 (54, 80) 24 40 66 161 8.7 (7.2, 10.3) 3.9 7.4 10.8
  Sodium (mg)/100 g Saturated fatty acids (g)/100 g
N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75
All 2159 325 (284, 365) 10 74 400 2159 4.4 (4.1, 4.8) 0.1 1.2 6.2
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 481 126 (91, 160) 5 25 75 481 1.9 (1.5, 2.3) 0.0 0.2 2.0
 Processed culinary ingredients 37 62 (19, 105) 0 0 10 37 19.2 (12.5, 25.9) 1.3 14.3 27.2
 Processed 358 398 (334, 463) 26 232 600 358 6.5 (5.5, 7.5) 0.1 2.6 9.7
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 1022 478 (398, 558) 50 240 524 1022 5.4 (4.9, 5.8) 0.6 2.6 8.3
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed(MPD) 82 51 (29, 72) 2 22 39 82 0.9 (0.4, 1.5) 0.0 0.0 1.0
 Processed 18 6 (2, 10) 2 3 4 18 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ultra-processed (UPD) 161 19 (14, 23) 1 5 40 161 0.3 (0.1, 0.6) 0.0 0.0 0.0
  Fibre (g)/100 g Protein (g)/100 g
N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75
All 2159 2 (1.8, 2.1) 0 0.7 2.5 2159 7.1 (6.7, 7.4) 0.8 3.8 10.8
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 481 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) 0.0 1.6 3.0 481 8.9 (8.1, 9.7) 1.1 3.9 18.3
 Processed culinary ingredients 37 0.2 (0.1, 0.5) 0.0 0.0 0.0 37 0.3 (0.1, 0.6) 0.0 0.0 0.3
 Processed 358 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) 0.0 0.1 1.7 358 9.5 (8.3, 10.6) 0.7 2.8 19.5
Ultra-processed (UPF) 1022 2.3 (2.1, 2.5) 0.2 1.3 3.4 1022 7.1 (6.7, 7.5) 2.1 5.8 10.0
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPD) 82 0.4 (0.2, 0.5) 0.0 0.2 0.4 82 2.5 (1.3, 3.6) 0.4 1.0 2.2
 Processed 18 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) 0.0 0.0 0.3 18 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) 0.0 0.2 0.4
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 161 0.4 (0.1, 0.6) 0.0 0.0 0.2 161 1.0 (0.6, 1.4) 0.0 0.1 1.3
  GHG emissions (kg CO2-eq)/100 g Blue water use (m3)/100 g
N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75 N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75
All 265 0.54 (0.44, 0.64) 0.14 0.25 0.62 265 0.021 (0.013, 0.029) 0.002 0.006 0.012
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 106 0.55 (0.35, 0.74) 0.12 0.21 0.52 106 0.033 (0.017, 0.049) 0.004 0.007 0.017
 Processed culinary ingredients 7 0.57 (0.10, 1.04) 0.11 0.50 1.22 7 0.060 (0.070, 0.191) 0.001 0.010 0.018
 Processed 20 0.84 (0.52, 1.16) 0.27 0.85 1.10 20 0.036 (0.010, 0.082) 0.005 0.010 0.012
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 98 0.62 (0.49, 0.75) 0.22 0.42 0.64 98 0.008 (0.007, 0.010) 0.004 0.006 0.011
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPD) 13 0.11 (0.06, 0.15) 0.04 0.14 0.15 13 0.008 (0.002, 0.019) 0.001 0.002 0.004
 Processed 4 0.18 (0.06, 0.30) 0.14 0.21 0.22 4 0.007 (0.001, 0.013) 0.005 0.009 0.009
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 17 0.10 (0.05, 0.14) 0.05 0.06 0.07 17 0.002 (0.001, 0.002) 0.001 0.001 0.002
  Food costs ( €)/100 g  
N Mean (95%CI) P25, P50, P75     
All 993 0.65 (0.57, 0.74) 0.19 0.37 0.80        
Foods
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF) 256 0.97 (0.66, 1.29) 0.20 0.48 1.09        
 Processed culinary ingredients 12 0.26 (0.14, 0.38) 0.12 0.20 0.38        
 Processed 163 0.70 (0.60, 0.79) 0.23 0.54 0.98        
 Ultra-processed (UPF) 458 0.55 (0.51, 0.59) 0.24 0.40 0.72        
Drinks
 Unprocessed or minimally processed (MPD) 31 0.15 (0.07, 0.24) 0.08 0.11 0.13        
 Processed 9 0.33 (0.25, 0.41) 0.25 0.36 0.40        
 Ultra-processed (UPD) 64 0.37 (0.23, 0.52) 0.09 0.13 0.36