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Table 2 Item response and reliability of the PMT scale

From: Protection motivation theory and smoking quitting intention: findings based on structural equation modelling and mediation analysis

Perceived appraisal Item and Primary Subconstructs Mean(SD) ICC Cronbach α
Perceived threat Perceived severity 0.79
1. The earlier a person starts smoking, the greater the harm 6.19(1.48) 0.31
2. More smokers get sickness than nonsmokers 5.24(1.97) 0.45
3. Smokers die earlier than nonsmokers 5.02(1.96) 0.48
Perceived vulnerability
4. I would become addicted if I smoked 5.17(2.08) 0.14
5. I would get sick if I smoked 4.88(1.90) 0.47
6. If I smoked, I may die earlier 4.50(1.99) 0.44
Perceived rewards Intrinsic rewards 0.76
7. Smoking makes people feel comfortable 5.04(1.81) 0.16
8. Smoking helps people concentrate 4.92(1.79) 0.22
9. Smoking enhances brainwork 5.04(1.79) 0.22
Extrinsic rewards
10. Smokers look cool and fashionable 2.75(1.82) 0.25
11. Smoking is good for social networking 4.87(1.86) 0.25
12. The life of a smoker is happier than that of a nonsmoker 3.03(1.85) 0.12
Perceived efficacy Self-efficacy 0.75
13. I am confident that I can quit smoking successfully 4.32(2.11) 0.28
14. I have the ability to stop smoking 4.46(2.09) 0.27
15. I think stop smoking is easy for me 3.53(2.13) 0.13
Response efficacy
16. People will feel good by not smoking 4.31(1.92) 0.28
17. People will be less likely to get disease if they do not smoke 4.85(1.89) 0.38
18. Quitting smoking is good for disease recovery 5.43(1.81) 0.26
Perceived costs Response cost 0.73
19. A person may be isolated if they quit smoking 3.34(1.92) 0.24
20. Refusing a cigarette offer is very impolite 3.85(2.03) 0.20
21. One will miss the enjoyment if he or she quits smoking 3.43(2.00) 0.17
Overall   0.71
  1. ICC represents the interclass correlation coefficient