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Table 3 Occupational stress and high stress among employees in each industry

From: Occupational stress: evidence from industries affected by COVID-19 in Japan

  Occupational stress High stress employee
Total 2020 2019 Total 2020 2019
Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Industry dummies Coeff.(SE) Coeff.(SE) Coeff.(SE) Coeff.(SE) Coeff.(SE) Coeff.(SE)
Reference (civil service)
 Medical 3.717*** 3.376*** 3.080*** 0.050*** 0.042*** 0.042***
(0.104) (0.128) (0.270) (0.002) (0.002) (0.005)
 Wholesale retail 3.475*** 9.079*** 3.721*** 0.040*** 0.111*** 0.044***
(0.171) (0.973) (0.257) (0.003) (0.013) (0.005)
 Accommodation/restaurant 7.914*** 8.055*** 4.998 0.096***
(0.335) (0.415) (3.953)   (0.006)  
 Service Industry(other) 0.332 0.991*** −2.158*** 0.011** 0.013* −0.011
(0.269) (0.337) (0.487) (0.006) (0.007) (0.011)
 Real Estate 2.416*** 1.840** 3.049* 0.028* 0.018 0.023
(0.793) (0.932) (1.789) (0.016) (0.018) (0.042)
 Professional service 1.434** 0.832 1.407 −0.017 − 0.017 − 0.082
(0.722) (0.871) (1.653) (0.018) (0.020) (0.062)
 Construction 3.355*** 3.041*** 3.105*** 0.031*** 0.021* 0.023*
(0.320) (0.570) (0.535) (0.006) (0.011) (0.012)
 Education 1.929*** 2.062*** 1.610*** 0.020*** 0.020*** 0.017***
(0.139) (0.219) (0.193) (0.003) (0.004) (0.004)
 Entertainment 2.032*** 2.047** 2.796* 0.008 0.001 −0.012
(0.691) (1.024) (1.477) (0.015) (0.022) (0.037)
 Manufacturing 5.949*** 5.471*** 5.912*** 0.070*** 0.060*** 0.070***
(0.092) (0.186) (0.152) (0.002) (0.003) (0.003)
 Transportation/postal 3.557*** 2.172*** 4.050*** 0.055*** 0.032*** 0.062***
(0.277) (0.450) (0.384) (0.005) (0.009) (0.007)
 Information/communication 4.404*** 3.390*** 5.130*** 0.051*** 0.024 0.066***
(0.433) (0.809) (0.735) (0.008) (0.015) (0.012)
 Female 3.890*** 3.991*** 4.071*** 0.034*** 0.033*** 0.038***
(0.037) (0.053) (0.065) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
 Age −0.046*** −0.033*** − 0.060*** −0.000*** − 0.000*** −0.000***
(0.001) (0.002) (0.002) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
 Company size 0.000*** −0.000*** 0.000*** 0.000*** −0.000*** 0.000***
(0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Year dummies Yes    Yes   
Observations 673,071 320,348 219,768 667,965 320,348 219,768
R-squared 0.031 0.029 0.031 0.0106 0.0106 0.0106
  1. Data sources: Employee occupational stress data, Social Advance Inc. 2018 ~ 2020. The robust results are displayed in Table A2
  2. Coeff. Coefficient, SE Robust Standard Error
  3. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1