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Table 2 Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis for pre-and-post migration factors using chronic pain and long-term disability as the outcome. OR-odds ratio; p = p-value; CI = confidence interval

From: The association between chronic pain and pre-and-post migration experiences in resettled humanitarian refugee women residing in Australia

Variable Response Chronic Pain Long-term Disability
OR P 95% CI OR P 95% CI
PRE-MIGRATION FACTORS
Age 18 – 75 years 1.08  < 0.001 (1.05 – 1.11) 1.04 0.006 (1.01 – 1.08)
No. of pre-migration traumas experienced None - - - - - -
1 – 2 1.39 0.483 (0.56 – 3.45) 3.30 0.041 (1.05 – 10.34)
3 or more 1.64 0.314 (0.63 – 4.28) 3.02 0.066 (0.93 – 9.85)
Married or has a partner No - - - - - -
Yes 0.96 0.907 (0.51 – 1.83) 1.01 0.982 (0.45 – 2.29)
Pre-arrival Education Never attended school - - -    -
 < 6 years of school 0.72 0.402 (0.34 – 1.55) 1.10 0.834 (0.44 – 2.77)
6 – 12 years of school 0.55 0.127 (0.26 – 1.18) 1.25 0.664 (0.46 – 3.44)
12 years + of school 0.56 0.166 (0.24 – 1.28) 0.88 0.791 (0.34 – 2.29)
Trade or Tech school 0.86 0.786 (0.29 – 2.58) 1.72 0.460 (0.41 – 7.28)
University Degree 0.52 0.188 (0.20 – 1.38) 1.32 0.711 (0.30 – 5.84)
Visa Category 200 Refugee Visa - - - - - -
Onshore Protection/ Humanitarian Visa 1.36 0.464 (0.60 – 3.10) 1.06 0.904 (0.41 – 2.77)
204 Women at Risk Visa 2.40 0.008 (1.26 – 4.56) 2.10 0.081 (0.91 – 4.83)
POST-MIGRATION FACTORS
Main Income Source in Australia Non- Government support - - - - - -
Government support 5.32 0.070 (0.87 – 32.54) 6.48 0.155 (0.49 – 85.25)
No. daily Financial Hardships None - - - - - -
1 or more 1.24 0.458 (0.70 – 2.17) 1.26 0.537 (0.61 – 2.60)
Stress – Financial No - - - - - -
Yes 0.95 0.860 (0.53 – 1.71) 1.10 0.798 (0.52 – 2.37)
English Speaking Proficiency Not well/not at all - - - - - -
Very well/well 1.06 0.886 (0.48 – 2.37) 1.34 0.558 (0.50 – 3.62)
Stress – Language barriers No - - - - - -
Yes 1.31 0.458 (0.64 – 2.66) 1.00 0.991 (0.43 – 2.36)
Mental Health Status PTSD8 Does no meet criteria for PTSD - - - - - -
Meets criteria for PTSD 1.65 0.091 (0.92 – 2.96) 1.80 0.175 (0.77 – 4.18)
General Health Poor – Very poor - - - - - -
Good – Fair 0.14  < 0.001 (0.07 – 0.28) 0.18 0.000 (0.07 – 0.45)
Excellent – Very Good 0.04  < 0.001 (0.01 – 0.11) 0.04 0.000 (0.01 – 0.16)
Region of Settlement in Australia Regional Australia - - - - - -
Metropolitan cities 0.29 0.004 (0.13 – 0.68) 0.31 0.059 (0.09 – 1.04)
Stress – Loneliness No - - - - - -
Yes 1.70 0.136 (0.85 – 3.42) 1.50 0.364 (0.62 – 3.63)
Stress – Discrimination No - - - - - -
Yes 11.23 0.010 (1.76 – 71.51) 1.00 - -