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Table 2 Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis for pre-and-post migration factors using chronic pain and long-term disability as the outcome. OR-odds ratio; p = p-value; CI = confidence interval

From: The association between chronic pain and pre-and-post migration experiences in resettled humanitarian refugee women residing in Australia

Variable

Response

Chronic Pain

Long-term Disability

OR

P

95% CI

OR

P

95% CI

PRE-MIGRATION FACTORS

Age

18 – 75 years

1.08

 < 0.001

(1.05 – 1.11)

1.04

0.006

(1.01 – 1.08)

No. of pre-migration traumas experienced

None

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 – 2

1.39

0.483

(0.56 – 3.45)

3.30

0.041

(1.05 – 10.34)

3 or more

1.64

0.314

(0.63 – 4.28)

3.02

0.066

(0.93 – 9.85)

Married or has a partner

No

-

-

-

-

-

-

Yes

0.96

0.907

(0.51 – 1.83)

1.01

0.982

(0.45 – 2.29)

Pre-arrival Education

Never attended school

-

-

-

  

-

 < 6 years of school

0.72

0.402

(0.34 – 1.55)

1.10

0.834

(0.44 – 2.77)

6 – 12 years of school

0.55

0.127

(0.26 – 1.18)

1.25

0.664

(0.46 – 3.44)

12 years + of school

0.56

0.166

(0.24 – 1.28)

0.88

0.791

(0.34 – 2.29)

Trade or Tech school

0.86

0.786

(0.29 – 2.58)

1.72

0.460

(0.41 – 7.28)

University Degree

0.52

0.188

(0.20 – 1.38)

1.32

0.711

(0.30 – 5.84)

Visa Category

200 Refugee Visa

-

-

-

-

-

-

Onshore Protection/ Humanitarian Visa

1.36

0.464

(0.60 – 3.10)

1.06

0.904

(0.41 – 2.77)

204 Women at Risk Visa

2.40

0.008

(1.26 – 4.56)

2.10

0.081

(0.91 – 4.83)

POST-MIGRATION FACTORS

Main Income Source in Australia

Non- Government support

-

-

-

-

-

-

Government support

5.32

0.070

(0.87 – 32.54)

6.48

0.155

(0.49 – 85.25)

No. daily Financial Hardships

None

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 or more

1.24

0.458

(0.70 – 2.17)

1.26

0.537

(0.61 – 2.60)

Stress – Financial

No

-

-

-

-

-

-

Yes

0.95

0.860

(0.53 – 1.71)

1.10

0.798

(0.52 – 2.37)

English Speaking Proficiency

Not well/not at all

-

-

-

-

-

-

Very well/well

1.06

0.886

(0.48 – 2.37)

1.34

0.558

(0.50 – 3.62)

Stress – Language barriers

No

-

-

-

-

-

-

Yes

1.31

0.458

(0.64 – 2.66)

1.00

0.991

(0.43 – 2.36)

Mental Health Status PTSD8

Does no meet criteria for PTSD

-

-

-

-

-

-

Meets criteria for PTSD

1.65

0.091

(0.92 – 2.96)

1.80

0.175

(0.77 – 4.18)

General Health

Poor – Very poor

-

-

-

-

-

-

Good – Fair

0.14

 < 0.001

(0.07 – 0.28)

0.18

0.000

(0.07 – 0.45)

Excellent – Very Good

0.04

 < 0.001

(0.01 – 0.11)

0.04

0.000

(0.01 – 0.16)

Region of Settlement in Australia

Regional Australia

-

-

-

-

-

-

Metropolitan cities

0.29

0.004

(0.13 – 0.68)

0.31

0.059

(0.09 – 1.04)

Stress – Loneliness

No

-

-

-

-

-

-

Yes

1.70

0.136

(0.85 – 3.42)

1.50

0.364

(0.62 – 3.63)

Stress – Discrimination

No

-

-

-

-

-

-

Yes

11.23

0.010

(1.76 – 71.51)

1.00

-

-