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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of humanitarian refugee women in the Building A New Life in Australia project, 2013–14 (weighted data)

From: The association between chronic pain and pre-and-post migration experiences in resettled humanitarian refugee women residing in Australia

Characteristic Description Response Totala
(n = 310)
Pre-migration Factors
Age, mean (years) Age 18 – 75 years 41.3 (12.9)
Marital Status Married or has a Partner Yes 103 (33.2%)
No 207 (66.8%)
Religion Religion Buddhism 3 (0.97%)
Christianity 135 (43.6%)
Hinduism 3 (0.97%)
Islam 134 (43.2%)
Other 32 (10.3%)
No Religion 3 (0.97%)
Country of Birth Major groups based on the Standard Australian Classification of Countries major groups North Africa and Middle East 166 (53.6%)
South – East Asia 27 (8.7%)
North – East Asia 1 (0.3%)
Southern and Central Asia 108 (34.8%)
Americas 1 (0.3%)
Sub-Saharan Africa 7 (2.3%)
Pre-arrival education Pre-arrival education Never attended school 82 (26.4%)
 < 6 years of school 65 (21.0%)
6 – 12 years of school 70 (22.6%)
12 years + of school 50 (16.1%)
Trade or Tech school 15 (4.8%)
University Degree 28 (9.0%)
Visa category Visa category 200 Refugee Visa 144 (46.4%)
Onshore Protection/ Humanitarian Visa 35 (11.3%)
204 Women at Risk Visa 131 (42.3%)
Time spent in detention Time spent in detention Yes 2 (0.7%)
No 308 (99.3%)
Number of pre-migration traumas Number of pre-migration traumas None 38 (12.3%)
1 – 2 traumas 169 (54.5%)
3 or more traumas 103 (33.2%)
Number of countries spent time in before coming to Australia Number of countries lived in between country of birth and Australia None/not specified 50 (16.1%)
1 Country 242 (78.1%)
2 Countries 13 (4.2%)
3 or more countries 5 (1.7%)
Migration pathway Arrived in Australia via onshoreb or offshore migration pathwayc Onshore pathway 22 (7.1%)
Offshore pathway 288 (92.9%)
Post-migration Factors
Region of settlement in Australia Region of settlement in Australia Metropolitan cities 261 (84.2%)
Regional Australia 49 (15.8%)
Currently in paid employment Currently in paid employment in Australia Yes 2 (0.7%)
No 308 (99.3%)
Main income source in Australia Main source of income in Australia Government support 294 (94.8%)
Non-Government support 16 (5.2%)
No. daily financial hardships Number of daily financial hardships experienced in Australia None 172 (55.5%)
1 or more 138 (44.5%)
Financial stressors Financial stressors Yes 129 (41.6%)
No 181 (58.4%)
English speaking proficiency Currently understands spoken English very well/well 248 (80.0%)
not well/not at all 62 (20.0%)
Undertaken further study/training in Australia Undertaken study or job training in Australia, other than English language classes Yes 27 (8.7%)
No 283 (91.3%)
Stress-language barriers Language barriers as main source of stress in Australia Yes 212 (68.4%)
No 98 (31.6%)
Housing stability Housing Stability Temporary/Other 43 (13.9%)
Short-term lease/contract 119 (38.4%)
Long-term lease/contract 148 (47.7%)
Mental Health Status PTSD8 Meets intrusion, avoidance and hypervigilance criteria for PTSD Yes 120 (38.7%)
No 190 (61.3%)
General Health General health status Poor – Very poor 78 (25.2%)
Good – Fair 170 (54.8%)
Excellent – Very Good 62 (20.0%)
Length of stay in Australia Length of stay in Australia  < 6 months 279 (90%)
 < 12 months 12 (3.9%)
 > 1 year 19 (6.1%)
Stress-loneliness Loneliness as main source of stress in Australia Yes 74 (23.9%)
No 236 (76.1%)
Received social support Received any religious, like ethnic or community support in Australia Yes 148 (47.7%)
No 162 (52.3%)
Discrimination Discrimination as main source of stress in Australia Yes 11 (3.6%)
No 299 (96.4%)
  1. aData are provided as n (%) or mean (SD)
  2. bOnshore pathway is available to those who wish to apply for asylum after arrival in Australia as an unauthorised maritime arrival or holder of valid visa (eg. tourist)
  3. cOffshore pathway is available to those who may be eligible for resettlement to Australia, such as those identified by the UNHCR or those eligible for sponsorship to Australia