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Table 6 Multivariable logistic regression analyzing the association between recognizing nipple symptoms and participant characteristics

From: Women’s awareness of breast cancer symptoms: a national cross-sectional study from Palestine

Characteristic Discharge or bleeding from the nipple Nipple rash Change in the position of the nipple Pulling in of the nipple
AOR (95% CI)* P-value AOR (95% CI)* P-value AOR (95% CI)* P-value AOR (95% CI)* P-value
Age group
 18 to 39 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 40 or older 1.36 (1.16–1.59) <0.001 1.25 (1.08–1.45) 0.002 1.46 (1.27–1.68) <0.001  1.56 (1.35–1.80) <0.001 
Educational level
 Secondary or below Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Post-secondary 1.36 (1.18–1.58) <0.001 1.26 (1.10–1.43) 0.001 1.21 (1.06–1.38) 0.004 1.34 (1.17–1.53) <0.001 
Occupation
 Unemployed/home duties Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Employed 1.33 (1.11–1.60) 0.002 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 0.99 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 0.72 1.27 (1.08–1.49) 0.004
 Retired 1.30 (0.28–6.00) 0.73 1.79 (0.48–6.60) 0.38 3.30 (0.72–15.10) 0.12 2.04 (0.55–7.57) 0.28
 Student 1.49 (1.17–1.91) 0.001 1.17 (0.94–1.47) 0.16 1.18 (0.95–1.47) 0.13 1.44 (1.15–1.80) 0.001
Monthly income
 < 1450 NIS Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 1.47 (1.25–1.73) <0.001 0.96 (0.82–1.11) 0.54 1.12 (0.97–1.30) 0.12 1.11 (0.96–1.29) 0.15
Residency
 Gaza Strip Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 WBJ 0.70 (0.59–0.82) <0.001 0.70 (0.61–0.81) <0.001 0.70 (0.60–0.80) <0.001  0.66 (0.57–0.76) <0.001
Having a chronic disease
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.15 (0.97–1.38) 0.12 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.75 1.16 (1.00–1.36) 0.06 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 0.37
Knowing someone with cancer
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.04 (0.92–1.17) 0.57 1.21 (1.08–1.36) 0.001 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 0.16 1.14 (1.02–1.28) 0.022
Marital status
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married 1.17 (0.98–1.40) 0.09 1.09 (0.92–1.28) 0.31 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 0.06 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 0.50
 Divorced/Widowed 1.19 (0.87–1.63) 0.27 0.96 (0.73–1.28) 0.80 0.90 (0.68–1.19) 0.45 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 0.96
Site of data collection
 Public spaces Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Hospitals 1.51 (1.30–1.75) <0.001 1.37 (1.19–1.57) <0.001 1.54 (1.35–1.77) <0.001 1.50 (1.31–1.72) <0.001
 Primary healthcare centers 1.65 (1.39–1.95) <0.001 1.40 (1.20–1.63) <0.001 1.63 (1.40–1.90) <0.001  1.86 (1.60–2.17) <0.001 
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, WBJ West Bank and Jerusalem
  2. *Adjusted for age-group, educational level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, residency, having a chronic disease, knowing someone with cancer, and site of data collection