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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analyzing the association between recognizing breast symptoms and participant characteristics

From: Women’s awareness of breast cancer symptoms: a national cross-sectional study from Palestine

characteristic A lump or thickening in the breast Pain in one of the breasts or armpits Puckering or dimpling of the breast skin Redness of the breast skin
AOR (95% CI)* P-value AOR (95% CI)* P-value AOR (95% CI)* P-value AOR (95% CI)* P-value
Age group
 18 to 39 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 40 or older 1.18 (0.89–1.57) 0.24 0.80 (0.69–0.92) 0.002 1.52 (1.32–1.76) <0.001  1.47 (1.27–1.69) <0.001 
Educational level
 Secondary or below Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Post-secondary 1.94 (1.49–2.53)  <0.001 1.26 (1.10–1.44) 0.001 1.51 (1.32–1.73) <0.001   1.23 (1.08–1.41) 0.002
Occupation
 Unemployed/home duties Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Employed 0.85 (0.62–1.18) 0.34 0.85 (0.73–1.00) 0.054 1.08 (0.92–1.28) 0.33 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 0.83
 Retired 0.38 (0.05–3.10) 0.37 4.40 (0.96–20.06) 0.06 1.54 (0.41–5.74) 0.52 0.65 (0.21–1.97) 0.45
 Student 0.84 (0.56–1.26) 0.40 1.04 (0.83–1.31) 0.73 1.26 (1.01–1.58) 0.041 1.12 (0.90–1.40) 0.32
Monthly income
 < 1450 NIS Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 1.87 (1.40–2.48) <0.001 0.95 (0.82–1.10) 0.52 1.11 (0.96–1.29) 0.17 0.81 (0.70–0.94) 0.005
Residency         
 Gaza Strip Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 WBJ 0.45 (0.34–0.61)  <0.001 1.15 (1.00–1.32) 0.06 0.73 (0.63–0.84)  <0.001 0.75 (0.65–0.86) <0.001 
Having a chronic disease
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.02 (0.75–1.39) 0.89 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.26 0.94 (0.81–1.11) 0.47 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.73
Knowing someone with cancer
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.46 (1.17–1.83) 0.001 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 0.25 1.21 (1.08–1.36) 0.001 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 0.07
Marital status
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married 1.40 (1.03–1.90) 0.029 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 0.11 0.86 (0.73–1.02) 0.08 1.15 (0.98–1.36) 0.09
 Divorced/Widowed 2.27 (1.25–4.15) 0.007 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 0.63 0.87 (0.66–1.16) 0.35 0.85 (0.64–1.12) 0.25
Site of data collection
 Public spaces Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Hospitals 1.40 (1.07–1.84) 0.016 1.06 (0.92–1.21) 0.43 1.84 (1.60–2.11) <0.001  1.46 (1.28–1.68) <0.001  
 Primary healthcare centers 0.90 (0.68–1.20) 0.48 1.36 (1.17–1.59)  <0.001 2.02 (1.73–2.36) <0.001  1.50 (1.28–1.75) <0.001  
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, WBJ West Bank and Jerusalem
  2. *Adjusted for age-group, educational level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, residency, having a chronic disease, knowing someone with cancer, and site of data collection