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Table 4 Associations between reported tick exposure and socio-demographic, environmental and behavioral factors. The table presents results from the multivariable analysis conducted utilising (1) mixed model using random effects for RLS and no weights, and (2) quasi binomial regression with weights (OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval). The reference category for the preventive behaviors is either “never” or “rarely”. The reference for the gardening, hiking and camping is no regular engagement in these activities

From: Behavioral risk factors associated with reported tick exposure in a Lyme disease high incidence region in Canada

   Random effects for RLS no weights Quasi binomial with weights
   OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Intercept   0.0015 0.0005-0.0052 0.0017 0.0004-0.0068
Sex Male ref ref
Female 0.58 0.43-0.77 0.68 0.44-1.06
Age 18-24 yr ref ref
25-34yr 2.08 0.68-6.33 0.92 0.23-3.72
25-44 yr 2.87 1.00-8.26 1.94 0.52-7.25
45-54 yr 2.12 0.72-6.2 1.23 0.31-4.90
55-64 yr 1.39 0.48-4.05 0.81 0.20-3.32
65-74 yr 2.33 0.81-6.71 1.34 0.34-5.32
75+ yr 2.60 0.83-8.16 1.85 0.39-8.84
Education No diploma ref ref
High school diploma or less 1.07 0.77-1.49 1.23 0.76-2.01
Preventive behaviors Tick repellent 1.08 0.79-1.46 1.06 0.70-1.59
Tick checks 4.35 3.14-6.03 4.33 2.59-7.22
Shower 1.12 0.82-1.52 1.23 0.81-1.89
Daily time spent outdoors 0 h ref ref
< 1 h 1.06 0.72-1.56 1.08 0.61-1.92
1-4 hrs 1.97 1.32-2.94 1.83 1.08-3.10
5h hrs 3.63 2.26-5.83 3.09 1.61-5.92
Outdoor activities Gardening 1.10 0.80-1.51 1.12 0.76-1.63
Camping 0.98 0.71-1.36 1.07 0.70-1.64
Hiking 1.36 0.98-1.88 1.10 0.70-1.72
Home within 500 ft. of high-risk area 1.70 1.10-2.62 2.40 1.41-4.09
Public health risk level 1.85 1.33-2.58 2.14 1.48-3.10