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Table 4 Macro- and micronutrient intakes for children aged 9 to 13 years (n = 381), by sex

From: Food and nutrient intake of school-aged children in Lebanon and their adherence to dietary guidelines and recommendations

Nutrient DRI1 Boys (n = 204) Girls (n = 177)
Mean ± SE Median (P25, P75) % < EAR/AMDR % > AI/AMDR Mean ± SE Median (P25, P75) % < EAR/AMDR % > AI/AMDR
AI/EAR/AMDR
Energy (kcal/d) 2089.0 ± 58.1 2052.7 (1455.5, 2589.5) 1825.0 ± 53.7 1780.0 (1313.7, 2297.8)
Macronutrients
 Total Fat (g/d) 94.0 ± 3.1 89.7 (63.4, 122.8) 84.2 ± 3.1 78.1 (53.2, 112.3)
 Saturated fat (g/d) 24.1 ± 1.0 22.0 (12.6, 33.1) 22.1 ± 1.0 20.5 (11.9, 29.0)
 Carbohydrate (g/d) 100 253.1 ± 7.8 236.7 (168.6, 327.0) 5.4 219.0 ± 6.9 212.7 (148.4, 271.2) 6.2
 Total Sugars (g/d) 84.7 ± 3.9 76.0 (41.7, 111.4) 77.4 ± 3.5 70.7 (44.6, 100.2)
 Added Sugars (g/d) 25* 59.9 ± 3.3 48.9 (28.1, 80.3) 22.5 77.5 51.1 ± 2.9 43.2 (21.7, 75.5) 26.5 73.5
 Dietary fiber (g/d) 31 (B)-26 (G) 16.1 ± 0.7 13.2 (9.0, 20.2) 9.3 14.0 ± 0.6 12.5 (9.7, 17.8) 6.8
 Protein (g/d) 0.76 g/Kg 63.3 ± 2.1 61.2 (41.1, 78.8) 15.2 53.6 ± 2.0 49.2 (35.7, 67.6) 20.9
 Total Fat (% of EI) 25–35% 39.9 ± 0.6 40..3 (35.2, 45.6) 8.8 a 75.5 a 40.3 ± 0.7 40.6 (34.1, 46.9) 5.1 b 70.1 b
 Saturated fat (% of EI)  < 8%† 10.1 ± 0.3 9.5 (7.1, 12.9) 65.7 10.7 ± 0.3 9.6 (7.1, 13.7) 69.5
 Carbohydrate (% of EI) 45–65% 48.7 ± 0.7 48.4 (42.5, 54.4) 35.8 5.4 48.9 ± 0.7 49.2 (42.8, 54.7) 31.6 3.9
 Total Sugars (% of EI) 16.2 ± 0.5 15.2 (10.4, 21.6) 17.1 ± 0.6 16.1 (11.2, 22.4)
 Added Sugars (% of EI) 11.2 ± 0.5 9.7 (5.9, 16.1) 11.0 ± 0.5 9.6 (5.9, 15.6)
 Protein (% of EI) 10–30% 12.5 ± 0.3 11.9 (9.4, 14.8) 29.4 a 1.0 a 12.1 ± 0.4 10.9 (8.8, 14.2) 41.2 b 1.1 b
Micronutrients
 Vitamin C (mg/d) 39 75.8 ± 5.2 53.3 (29.9, 102.7) 35.8 71.9 ± 5.2 47.1 (21.5, 101.5) 41.2
 Thiamin (mg/d) 0.7 1.4 ± 0.0 1.3 (0.9, 1.7) 15.7 a 1.1 ± 0.0 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 23.7 b
 Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.8 1.2 ± 0.1 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 28.4 1.1 ± 0.0 0.9 (0.7, 1.3) 32.2
 Niacin (mg/d) 9 18.4 ± 0.7 17.0 (10.9, 21.9) 14.2 a 14.8 ± 0.7 13.1 (9.2, 17.7) 24.3 b
 Vitamin B-6 (mg/d) 0.8 1.4 ± 0.1 1.3 (0.8, 1.8) 22.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.1 (0.7, 1.4) 29.9
 Folate (μg DFE/d) 250 264.7 ± 14.4 206.6 (139.8, 326.3) 62.3 236.4 ± 12.1 197.6 (116.6, 310.6) 66.1
 Vitamin B-12 (μg/d) 1.5 3.0 ± 0.6 1.7 (0.6, 3.1) 45.1 2.0 ± 0.2 1.4 (0.5, 2.4) 54.8
 Calcium (mg/d) 1100 697.8 ± 28.2 634.6 (392.3, 906.6) 86.8 622.4 ± 31.1 521.0 (335.9, 779.7) 86.4
 Phosphorus (mg/d) 1055 909.9 ± 28.1 849.1 (622.9, 1168.3) 66.7 a 780.3 ± 26.9 719.0 (521.6, 978.9) 78.5 b
 Magnesium (mg/d) 200 238.4 ± 7.6 220.7 (162.0, 303.0) 40.7 a 214.8 ± 7.9 195.0 (148.2, 256.3) 53.7 b
 Vitamin D (μg/d) 10 1.6 ± 0.2 0.5 (0.1, 2.2) 99.0 1.1 ± 0.1 0.3 (0.1, 1.2) 100
 Vitamin A (μg RAE/d) 445 (B)-420 (G) 531.2 ± 48.5 373.9 (189.4, 638.4) 77.9 552.8 ± 59.6 321.2 (172.9, 577.9) 80.2
 Vitamin K (μg/d) 60 164.7 ± 16.8 85.0 (38.1, 183.1) 62.8 a 162.8 ± 20.6 73.7 (27.4, 181.2) 52.0 b
 Iron (mg/d) 5.9 (B)-5.7 (G) 11.5 ± 0.5 10.4 (6.7, 15.1) 22.1 10.0 ± 0.5 8.2 (5.7, 12.9) 25.4
 Zinc (mg/d) 7 7.7 ± 0.3 7.3 (4.5, 10.2) 48.5 a 6.6 ± 0.3 5.7 (3.8, 8.2) 64.4 b
 Sodium (mg/d) 1200 2347.6 ± 84.5 2221.0 (1441.6, 3046.6) 80.9 2083.0 ± 80.8 2056.2 (1271.3, 2587.8) 78.0
 Potassium (mg/d) 2500 (B)-2300 (G) 2348.6 ± 81.6 2085.7 (1465.5, 3109.7) 39.2 2136.3 ± 84.3 1961.7 (1392.3, 2563.4) 35.6
  1. 1DRIs in bold are EARs and those in Italic are AMDRs
  2. WHO upper limit for saturated fat (8% of energy intake) for children above 2 years of age (WHO, 2008)
  3. *AHA recommendation for added sugar
  4. a and b indicate sex differences in DRI compliance using chi-square test at p < 0.05
  5. c and d indicate sex differences in DRI compliance using chi-square test at p < 0.001