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Table 1 Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics of Lebanese children aged 4 to 13 years, by age group

From: Food and nutrient intake of school-aged children in Lebanon and their adherence to dietary guidelines and recommendations

Age group (years) 4 to 13 4 to 8 9 to 13 P-value
n % n % n %
771 100 390 50.6 381 49.4
Sociodemographic Characteristics
Sex
 Boys 400 51.9 196 50.3 204 53.5 0.361
 Girls 371 48.1 194 49.7 177 46.5
Governorate
 Beirut 92 11.9 54 13.8 38 10.0 0.313
 Mount Lebanon 302 39.2 154 39.5 148 38.8
 North Lebanon 148 19.2 68 17.4 80 21.0
 South and Nabatieh 130 16.9 61 15.6 69 18.1
 Bekaa 99 12.8 53 13.6 46 12.1
Household monthly income (Lebanese pounds) a
 < 1,000,000 312 40.5 153 39.2 159 41.7 0.421
 1,000,000–2,000,000 289 37.5 156 40.0 133 34.9
  > 2,000–000 159 20.6 77 19.7 82 21.5
 Do not know / Refused to answer 11 1.4 4 1.0 7 1.8
Crowding Index
 < 2 persons/room 539 70.1 275 70.9 264 69.3 0.631
  ≥ 2 persons/room 230 29.9 113 29.1 117 30.7
Education of mother
 Less than elementary b 14 1.8 3 0.8 11 2.9 0.037
 Elementary-secondary c 586 76.0 292 74.9 294 77.2
 College 171 22.2 95 24.4 76 19.9
Education of father
 Less than elementary b 25 3.3 13 3.3 12 3.2 0.933
 Elementary-secondary c 632 82.5 319 82.0 313 83.0
 College 109 14.2 57 14.6 52 13.8
Mother employed
 Yes 194 25.2 106 27.2 88 23.1 0.185
 No 576 74.8 283 72.8 293 76.9
Father employed
 Yes 739 96.6 376 96.7 363 96.5 0.930
 No 26 3.4 13 3.3 13 3.5
Anthropometric Characteristics
Height for age d
 Stunted (HAZ < -2SD) 30 3.9 22 5.7 8 2.1 0.011
  Not stunted 740 96.1 367 94.3 373 97.9
BMI Status e
 Wasted (BAZ < -2SD) 6 0.8 3 0.8 3 0.8 0.238
 Normal 426 55.4 229 59.0 197 51.7
 At risk of overweight/Overweight f(BAZ >  + 1SD) 182 23.7 85 21.9 97 25.5
 Obese (BAZ >  + 2SD) 155 20.2 71 18.3 84 22.0
  1. a USD = 1, 500 Lebanese pounds (indicated rate was at the time of data collection – 2014–2015
  2. b Less than elementary includes being illiterate, not attending school, or being able to read and write only
  3. c Elementary to secondary includes primary school, intermediate school, high school, or technical diploma
  4. d Stunted if Height-for-age z-score (HAZ) < -2, not stunted if HAZ ≥ -2
  5. e Anthropometric measurements (including BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ)) of children were categorized based
  6. on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification
  7. and cut-off values[45, 46]
  8. f Among 4–5 years children (n = 72), 17 were at risk of overweight