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Table 3 Characteristics of PP1 HIV-positive participants compared to HIV-positive individuals in the 1985–2016 PHAC surveillance dataa

From: A national recruitment strategy for HIV-serodiscordant partners living in Canada for the Positive Plus One study: a mixed-methods study

Demographic Characteristic Positive Plus One Data
(N = 355)
PHAC Data
(N = 84,409)
p-value
N % 95% CI N % 95% CI  
Age at diagnosis 348 100 79,874 100 < 0.001
  < 15 9 2.6 0.9–4.3 657 0.8 0.8–0.9  
 15–19 14 4.0 2.0–6.1 1323 1.7 1.6–1.8  
 20–29 148 42.5 37.3–47.8 19,952 25.0 24.7–25.3  
 30–39 113 32.5 27.5–37.4 30,083 37.7 37.3–38.0  
 40–49 53 15.2 11.4–19.0 18,394 23.0 22.7–23.2  
  ≥ 50 11 3.2 1.3–5.0 9465 11.8 11.6–12.1  
 Unknown/Missing 7b 4535c  
Gender 355 100 80,134 100   < 0.001
 Male 239 67.3 62.4–72.2 64,127 80.0 79.8–80.3  
 Female 108 30.4 25.6–35.2 14,758 18.4 18.2–18.7  
 Sex not reported/ 4 1.1 0.0–2.3 1249 1.6 1.5–1.7  
 Transexual/Transgender        
 Otherd 4 1.1 0.0–2.3  
Sexual orientatione 348 100 45,554 100 < 0.001
 Heterosexual 141 40.5 35.3–45.7 19,316g 42.4 42.0–42.9  
 MSM 195f 56.0 50.8–61.3 26,238h 57.6 57.1–58.1  
 Other 12 3.5 1.5–5.4  
 Missing 7 34,580i  
Race/ethnicityj 348 100 12,453 100 < 0.001
 White 220 63.2 58.1–68.3 5528 44.4 43.5–45.3  
 Black 25 7.2 4.5–9.9 2448 19.7 19.0–20.4  
 Indigenousk 34 9.8 6.6–12.9 3076 24.7 24.0–25.5  
 Hispanic 33 9.5 6.4–12.6 422 3.4 3.1–3.7  
 East/Southeast Asian 11 3.2 1.3–5.0 528 4.2 3.9–4.6  
 South Asian/West Asian/Arab 10 2.9 1.1–4.6 287 2.3 2.1–2.6  
 Other 15 4.3 2.2–6.5 164 1.3 1.1–1.5  
 Missing 7 31,145l  
Region 352 100 84,409 100 < 0.001
 British Columbia 37 10.5 7.3–13.7 15,529 18.4 18.1–18.7  
 Alberta 19 5.4 3.0–7.8 6981 8.3 8.1–8.5  
 Saskatchewan 22 6.3 3.7–8.8 2341 2.8 2.7–2.9  
 Manitoba 8 2.3 0.7–3.8 2350 2.8 2.7–2.9  
 Ontario 205 58.2 53.1–63.4 36,319 43.0 42.7–43.4  
 Quebec 41 11.6 8.3–15.0 19,111 22.6 22.4–22.9  
 Atlantic 20 5.7 3.3–8.1 1652 2.0 1.9–2.1  
 Territories 0 126 0.1 0.1–0.2  
 Missing 3 0  
  1. Abbreviations: PP1 Positive Plus One, PHAC Public Health Agency of Canada
  2. a PHAC surveillance data include a lot of individuals who are no longer alive, primarily those who were infected during the pre-ART era. It should be noted that the early Canadian HIV epidemic primarily involved individuals who identified as White MSM whereas more recently the Canadian HIV epidemic has involved more individuals of colour and individuals who identified as heterosexual
  3. b This category includes missing responses in Positive Plus One data
  4. c This category includes “unknown” and “not reported” in 1985–2016 PHAC data
  5. d This category includes “two-spirited man,” “intersex,” “does not identify,” and “other” responses in Positive Plus One data
  6. e Sexual orientation data were not available from PHAC data. Exposure categories from PHAC data were used instead
  7. f This category includes men who identified as “gay,” “bisexual,” “two-spirited,” or “transsexual man who had sex with men,” “transsexual man,” “two-spirited man” in Positive Plus One data. This category also includes participants who identified as “gay,” “bisexual,” “queer,” or “two-spirited” and who were male in Positive Plus One data
  8. g This category includes “IDU” and “heterosexual contact” from PHAC data
  9. h This category includes “MSM” and “MSM/IDU” from PHAC data
  10. i This category includes “blood/blood products,” “other,” “no identified risk,” and “not reported” from PHAC data
  11. j For all provinces and territories for PHAC data, race/ethnicity information were not available before 1998 and race/ethnicity data were not available for Ontario before 2009
  12. k This category includes “Aboriginal” from PHAC data
  13. l For PHAC data, race/ethnicity information was not submitted by Quebec or British Columbia