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Table 6 Multilevel regression analysis showing associated factors to use of modern contraceptive (mCPR) among currently married women aged 15–49 years in Punjab and Manipur, 2015–16

From: Comparative analysis of contraceptive use in Punjab and Manipur: exploring beyond women’s education and empowerment

  Model-I Model-II Model-III
Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Individual & household level variables
State
  Punjab (Ref.)
  Manipur   0.05 (0.03, 0.08)*** 0.12 (0.06, 0.24)***
Years of schooling
 No schooling (Ref.)
   < 10 years   1.03 (0.78, 1.36) 1.03 (0.78, 1.36)
  10 + years   0.77 (0.56, 1.05) 0.77 (0.56, 1.05)
Women autonomy
 Low (Ref.)
  Medium   1.48 (1.17, 1.88)*** 1.47 (1.16, 1.86)***
  High   1.37 (1.08, 1.76)** 1.35 (1.06, 1.72)**
Age of women (in years)
 15–24 years (Ref.)
  25–34 years   2.10 (1.50, 2.95)*** 2.10 (1.50, 2.94)***
  35–49 years   1.79 (1.23, 2.60)** 1.77 (1.22, 2.57)**
Parity
 0–1 child (Ref.)
  2 children   3.10 (2.36, 4.09)*** 3.05 (2.32, 4.00)***
  3 + children   3.06 (2.21, 4.24)*** 3.03 (2.19, 4.19)***
Desire for more children
 No (Ref.)
  Yes   0.58 (0.44, 0.77)*** 0.57 (0.43, 0.76)***
Currently working
 No (Ref.)
  Yes   1.03 (0.81, 1.30) 1.03 (0.82, 1.31)
Religion
 Hindu (Ref.)
  Non-Hindu   0.91 (0.72, 1.14) 0.97 (0.77, 1.21)
Caste
 SC/ST (Ref.)
  OBC   0.86 (0.65, 1.13) 0.84 (0.64, 1.12)
  Others   0.97 (0.75, 1.25) 0.94 (0.73, 1.21)
Household wealth index
 Poor (Ref.)
  Middle   1.18 (0.90, 1.55) 1.17 (0.89, 1.53)
  Rich   1.26 (0.96, 1.65) 1.26 (0.96, 1.64)*
Community level variables
Place of residence
  Rural (Ref.)
  Urban   0.88 (0.68, 1.14) 0.87 (0.67, 1.12)
FLWs outreach for FP
  < 30% (Ref.)
  30–60%   1.15 (0.86, 1.54) 1.12 (0.84, 1.50)
  60 + %   1.27 (0.92, 1.74) 1.18 (0.86, 1.62)
District level variables
Method information index
   < 20% (Ref.)
  20–40%    1.19 (0.66, 2.15)
  40 + %    3.36 (1.65, 6.84)***
Exposure to FP message through media
  < 25% (Ref.)
  25 + %    0.91 (0.32, 2.58)
Knowledge about source of FP services
  < 20% (Ref.)
  20–40%    1.39 (0.92, 2.09)
  40 + %    0.72 (0.32, 1.62)
Facility readiness for at least one clinical method
  < 20% (Ref.)
  20–40%    1.68 (0.82, 3.47)
  40 + %    1.64 (0.73, 3.66)
  Constant 0.85 (0.51, 1.41) 0.48 (0.27, 0.84)** 0.15 (0.05, 0.47)***
Random effect parameters
  Variance [SE]
  District level 1.90 [0.50] 0.26 [0.10] 0.05 [0.04]
  Community level 0.19 [0.02] 0.43 [0.09] 0.43 [0.09]
  Individual & household level 0.00 [0.00] 0.00 [0.00] 0.00 [0.00]
VPC (PCV in %)
  District level    0.01 (80.8%)
  Community level    0.12 (0.0%)
  Individual & household level    0.00 (0.0%)
  1. Ref. Reference categories, VPC Variance partition coefficient, PCV Proportional change in variance, CI Confidence interval
  2. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.10
  3. SE: Standard errors; Figures in square brackets are standard errors