Skip to main content

Table 4 PICO Analysis of Included Studies

From: Do motorcycle helmets reduce road traffic injuries, hospitalizations and mortalities in low and lower-middle income countries in Africa? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Design Population Comparator Outcome
    Helmet
use distribution
Helmet use by road user Time
of crash
Day of crash Crash setting Crash method Injury severity by road user Injury type by road users Head injuries using helmets Mortality using helmets Mortality by
injury severity
Mortality by road user type Level of Consciousness Injury type
Sisimwo et al.,
2014 [22]
Analytical MCC victims at A&E (hospital) Y N` N N Y Y Y N Y N N N Y N
Sisimwo & Onchiri, 2018 [23] Analytical MCC victims at A&E (hospital) Y N Y Y N Y N Y Y N N N N N
Saidi & Mutisto, 2013 [24] Analytical MCC victims at A&E (hospital) Y Y Y N Y N N N Y Y Y N N Y
Osifo et al.,
2012 [25]
Analytical Pediatric RTA
victims presenting at a trauma center (includes MCC victims)
Y N N N N N N N N Y N Y N N
Oluwadiya et al., 2014 [34] Analytical MCC victims at A&E (hospital) Y Y N N N N Y Y N N N N N Y
Osoro et al., 2011 [38] Prevalence RTA
victims presenting at the hospital (includes MCC victims)
N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y
Oginni et al., 2006 [32] Prevalence MCC victims at maxillofacial unit (hospital) Y N N N N Y N N N N N N N Y
Matheka et al.,
2015 [33]
Prevalence MCC victims within preceding 3 months of survey Y N Y N Y N N N N N N N N Y