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Table 4 Contributing factors for coexisting forms of malnutrition (N = 15)

From: A review of the prevalence, trends, and determinants of coexisting forms of malnutrition in neonates, infants, and children

Author name (Year) Country Malnutrition type Contributing factors for coexisting forms of malnutrition
Age Sex Birth size & birthweight Birth interval and birth order Food and diet Health and disease status Health insurance Antenatal consultations Parent’s education Maternal occupation Parental obesity & short stature Maternal age Socioeconomic stratus Family size Water, sanitation, and toilet Region
Florencio, et al., (2001) Brazil CUW                
Fernald & Neufeld (2007) Mexico CSO               
Severi & Moratorio, (2014) Uruguay CSO            
Rachmi, et al., (2016) Indonesia CSO               
Saaka & Galaa (2016) Ghana CWS               
Zhang, et al., (2016) China CSO              
Garenne, et al., (2018) Senegal CWS               
Fongar, et al., (2019) Kenya CSO               
Islam & Biswas, (2019) Bangladesh CFUa        
Yasmin, et al., (2019) Indonesia CSO           
Ferreira, (2020) Brazil CWS               
Benedict, et al., (2020) Thailand CSO             
Farah, et al., (2021) Ethiopia CSO           
Roba, et al., (2021) Ethiopia CWS               
Khaliq, et al., (2021) Pakistan CUW
CUS
CUWS
CSO
           
  1. CWS Coexistence of wasting with stunting, CFU Coexisting forms of undernutrition, CSO Coexistence of overweight/obesity with stunting, COM Coexistence of overweight/obesity with micronutrient related malnutrition
  2. aIslam & Biswas (2019) assessed the determinants of coexistence of underweight with wasting (CUW), the coexistence of underweight with stunting (CUS), and coexistence of underweight with wasting and stunting (CUWS), jointly. Thus, they assessed the determinants of coexisting forms of undernutrition, i.e., CFU