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Table 2 Characteristics of selected studies (N = 24)

From: A review of the prevalence, trends, and determinants of coexisting forms of malnutrition in neonates, infants, and children

Publication year Country Data Study design Study year Sample size Sampling method Study measures Study population Data analysis
Adult age Indicator Children age Indicator
Florencio, et al., (2001) Brazil P CS 1999 1247 Home to home survey Prevalence, Determinants 10 to 18 years, Adults over 18 years BMI <  10 years HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ
Paired t-test, Multiple regression, variance analysis
Fernald & Neufeld (2007) Mexico S CS 2003 7555 Nil Prevalence,
Determinants
31 ± 9 years BMI 24 to 72 months HAZ,
BMI*
Multi-nominal logistic analysis
Severi & Moratorio, (2014) Uruguay S CS,
LS
2004 to 2011,
2012
4254 children,
3524 women.
Random sampling.
Nil
Determinants 13 to 15 years BMI,
Hb-test
6 years and 11 years HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
BAZ,
Hb-level.
Chi-square test.
Kinyoki, et al., (2016) Somalia S CS 2007 to 2010 73,778 Two-stage cluster sampling Prevalence, 0 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ
Multivariate spatial technique,
Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA)
Rachmi, et al., (2016) Indonesia S CS 1993,
1997,
2000,
2007
4101 Stratified random sampling Determinants,
Trend.
24 to 59 months HAZ,
BAZ
Multi-variate analysis model
Zhang, et al., (2016) China S CS 1991,
1993,
1997,
2000,
2004,
2006,
2009
5017 Multistage random-clustered sampling Prevalence,
Determinants,
Trend.
0 to 18 years HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
BAZ
Multi-nomial logit model
Saaka & Galaa, (2016) Ghana S CS 2014 2720 Stratified cluster sampling Prevalence, Determinants. 0 to 59 months HAZ,
WHZ
Moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis
Mgongo, et al., (2017) Tanzania P CS 2010 to 2011 1870 Multistage sampling Prevalence 0 to 24 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
Hb-test
Multivariate logistic regression
Zhang, et al., (2018) China S CS 2016 6570 Multistage sampling Prevalence 0 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
BAZ
Chi-square,
Logistic regression
Global Nutrition Report (2018) Global S DDB Nil Nil Nil Prevalence Adolescent and Adult BMI,
Hb-test,
BP,
DM-test,
Na-intake
0 to 59 months HAZ,
WHZ
Descriptive
Minh Do, et al., (2018) Vietnam P LS 2013 to 2016 2602 Strategic selection Trend 3 to 6 years HAZ,
WHZ
Chi-square
Fongar et al., (2019) Kenya S CS 2016 1058 Two-stage random sampling Types,
Prevalence,
Determinants
Adults BMI 6 to 59 months HAZ, WAZ, WHZ, MN-testing t-test
Garenne, et al., (2019) Senegal S LS 1983 to 1984 12,638 Nil Prevalence,
Determinants
6 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
HC,
MUAC,
Skinfolds
Multivariate analysis (linear models & logit-linear model)
Global Nutrition Report (2019) Global S DDB Nil Nil Nil Prevalence Adolescent and Adult BMI,
Hb-test,
BP,
DM-test,
Na-intake
0 to 59 months HAZ,
WHZ
Descriptive
Islam & Biswas, (2019) Bangladesh S CS 2014 6965 Two-stage stratified sampling Types,
Prevalence,
Determinants
0 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ
Multivariable logistic regression
Varghese & Stein (2019) India S CS 2015 to 2016 145,653 Stratified, two-stage probability sampling Types,
Prevalence
Women (15 to 49 years) BMI,
Hb-level
6 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
Hb-level
Chi-square, correlation, and linear regression
Yasmin, et al., (2019) Indonesia S CS 2010 8599 Two-stage sampling Prevalence,
Determinants
6 to 12 years HAZ,
BAZ
Chi-square test, Multivariate logistic regression
Ferreira, (2020) Brazil S CS 1992 and 2015 1229 and 987 Multistage Probability sampling Types,
Determinants, Trend
0 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
Chi-square test,
Benedict, et al., (2020) Thailand S CS 2015 to 2016 12,313 Multistage stratified cluster sampling Prevalence, Determinants 0 to 59 months HAZ, WHZ,
BAZ
Chi-square test, Multiple Poisson regression
Global Nutrition Report (2021) Global S DDB Nil Nil Nil Prevalence Adolescent and Adult BMI,
Hb-test,
BP,
DM-test,
Na-intake
0 to 59 months HAZ,
WHZ
Descriptive
Farah, et al., (2021) Ethiopia S CS 2015 8714 Multistage stratified cluster sampling Prevalence, Determinants 0 to 59 months HAZ,
BAZ
Hierarchical logistic regression
Zhang, et al., (2021) China P CS 2016 110,491 Multistage stratified cluster sampling Prevalenc 1 to 83 months HAZ
WAZ
BAZ
Chi-square, one sampled Wilcoxon-sign ranked test, Multivariate logistic regression
Roba, et al., (2021) Ethiopia S CS 2019 1200 Simple random sampling Prevalence,
Determinants
ND BMI 0 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ,
MUAC
Multivariate binary logistic regression
Khaliq, et al., (2021) Pakistan S CS 2012–2013, 2017–2018 6168 Multistage stratified cluster sampling Prevalence,
Trends,
Determinants
0 to 59 months HAZ,
WAZ,
WHZ
Multivariate logistic regression
  1. BAZ BMI for age Z-score, BMI Body Mass Index, BMI* Body Mass Index for age percentile, BP-test Blood pressure measurement, CS Cross-sectional, DDB Different Databases, DM –test Diabetes testing, HC Head Circumference, HAZ Height for Age Z-score, Hb-test Haemoglobin test for anaemia, LS Longitudinal study, ME Modelled Estimates, MN-testing Micronutrient testing, MUAC Measuring Upper Arm Circumference, Na-intake Sodium intake, ND Not defined, Nil No information obtained from the review article, P Primary data source, S Secondary data source, WAZ Weight for Age Z-score, WHZ Weight for Height Z-score, ¥ The GNR reports reported prevalence of coexisting forms of malnutrition, but due to yearly reporting it was considered as a trend