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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of baseline characteristics of study participants by age at baseline, midlife and late-life

From: Independent and joint effects of body mass index and metabolic health in mid- and late-life on all-cause mortality: a cohort study from the Swedish Twin Registry with a mean follow-up of 13 Years

Characteristics Age categories
Midlife (< = 65 years) Late-life (> 65 years)
Mean / n SD / % Mean / n SD / %
Number of participants (n) 6252   6215  
Age at baseline, years (mean, SD) 59.6 4.18 73.1 5.93
Sex, Males/Females (n, %) 2754/3498 44.05/55.95 2897/3318 46.61/53.39
BMI, kg/m2 (mean, SD) 26.06 3.94 26.01 3.81
Systolic BP, mmHg (mean, SD) 134.99 18.33 147.30 20.84
Diastolic BP, mmHg (mean, SD) 82.67 10.52 81.57 10.64
Blood glucose, mmol/l (mean, SD)
  Non fasting (n = 387) 4.88 1.33 5.30 2.13
  Fasting (n = 400) 4.63 1.17 4.89 2.31
HbA1c, % (mean, SD) 4.75 0.65 4.90 0.69
Type II Diabetes (n, %) 300 4.82 555 8.98
Diabetic medication use (n, %) 223 3.57 401 6.46
Triglycerides, mmol/l (mean, SD)
  Non fasting (n = 506) 1.63 1.20 1.78 0.97
  Fasting (n = 11,016) 1.34 0.84 1.40 0.79
HDL cholesterol, Males/Females, mmol/l (mean, SD) 1.23/1.57 0.34/0.42 1.25/1.55 0.34/0.42
Lipid-lowering medication use (n, %) 695 11.16 875 14.14
Education, <  = 7 years/ > 7 years (n, %) 1553/4699 24.84/75.16 2742/3473 44.12/55.88
Ever smoker (n, %) 3943 63.07 3172 51.04
CVD (n, %) 2021 32.33 2900 46.66
BMI categories (n, %)
  Normal weight 2786 44.56 2677 43.07
  Overweight 2581 41.28 2701 43.46
  Obesity 885 14.16 837 13.47
  Metabolically unhealthy (n, %) 2304 36.85 2831 45.55
  No. of Metabolic abnormalities (mean, SD) 1.34 1.06 1.63 1.01
  Mortality (n, %) 733 11.72 3419 55.01
BMI * Metabolic Health Status (%)
  MHN 2178 34.84 1800 28.96
  MUN 608 9.72 877 14.11
  MHOw 1454 23.26 1282 20.63
  MUOw 1127 18.03 1419 22.83
  MHO 316 5.05 302 4.86
  MUO 569 9.10 535 8.61
Weight History (%)
  Normal weight 3259 56.19 2617 58.14
  Overweight 2107 36.33 1616 35.90
  Obesity 434 7.48 268 5.95
  1. Baseline characteristics are presented as means and standard deviations (SD) for continuous variables; and frequencies (n) and percentages (%) for categorical variables. Individuals with measures taken in mid-and late-life are presented separately
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CVD history of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular surgeries, MHS metabolic health status, MHN metabolically healthy normal weight, MUN metabolically unhealthy normal weight, MHOw metabolically healthy overweight, MUOw metabolically unhealthy overweight, MHO metabolically healthy obesity, MUO metabolically healthy obesity. Normal weight was defined as having BMI 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2; overweight 25 – 29 kg/m2; obesity ≥ 30 kg/m2. Metabolically unhealthy status was defined as having ≥ 2 abnormal metabolic abnormalities. Metabolically healthy status was defined as having < 2 abnormal metabolic components