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Table 1 Characteristics of naloxone access, source utilization, and beliefs among potential opioid overdose “bystanders” (N = 260) surveyed in Massachusetts, 2020

From: If we build it, will they come? Perspectives on pharmacy-based naloxone among family and friends of people who use opioids: a mixed methods study

  Total N = 260
  n (%)
Ever purchased or otherwise obtained naloxone 201 (77)
  Median number of times obtained naloxone (interquartile range (IQR)) 3 (2–7)
  Reason(s) for not obtaining naloxone 59 (23)
    Don’t need ita 50 (85)
    Not comfortable asking for ita 3 (5)
    Don’t know where to get ita 2 (3)
    Confidentiality concernsa 2 (3)
    Too expensivea 1 (2)
  Places where naloxone has been obtained 201 (77)
    Support groupb 100 (50)
    Pharmacyb 63 (31)
    Syringe service/harm reduction programb 41 (20)
    Hospital, physician’s office, health clinic, health department, and/or EMTb 41 (20)
    Treatment or recovery centerb 38 (19)
    Friend/family memberb 14 (7)
    Police departmentb 4 (2)
    Fire departmentb 1 (1)
Know how to use naloxone 237 (91)
Everyone in the home knows where naloxone is and how to use itb 114 (57)
Have recommended naloxone to others 196 (75)
Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about naloxone (n (%) who strongly agree or agree)
  Everyone who has a close family member or friend who uses illicit or prescription opioids not prescribed for them should have naloxone 258 (99)
  I would be comfortable going to a syringe exchange/harm reduction program to get naloxone 217 (83)
  Naloxone is just a band-aid on the drug problem 56 (22)
  Everyone should carry naloxone, regardless of whether they know someone who uses opioids or not 190 (73)
  Concern about stigma keeps people from getting naloxone 225 (87)
  Knowing naloxone is available makes people who use drugs act more irresponsibly 64 (25)
  Naloxone is affordable 145 (56)
  Concern about confidentiality keeps people from getting naloxone at the pharmacy 166 (64)
  I want to receive counseling every time I purchase naloxone at the pharmacy 111 (43)
  I worry that people will judge me negatively if they find out I have naloxone 58 (22)
  Knowing naloxone is available encourages drug use 39 (15)
  I do not want to have a record of naloxone purchase on my insurance or medical record 66 (25)
  Naloxone is still effective after its labeled expiration date 136 (52)
  Aware that naloxone can be purchased at a pharmacy without a prescription 177 (68)
  Have tried purchasing naloxone at a pharmacy without a prescription 54 (21)
  Reason(s) for not trying to purchase naloxone at a pharmacy without a prescription 205 (79)
    Already have a reliable free sourcec 87 (42)
    Don’t need itc 79 (39)
    Thought a prescription was neededc 31 (15)
    Too expensivec 8 (4)
    Worried what people will thinkc 5 (2)
    Confidentiality concernsc 4 (2)
    Not comfortable asking for itc 4 (2)
    Don’t know where to get itc 4 (2)
  Median number of times tried to purchase naloxone at a pharmacy without a prescription (IQR) 2 (1–4)
  Have successfully purchased naloxone at a pharmacy without a prescriptiond 47 (87)
  For first pharmacy purchase attempte: 68 (26)
    Felt comfortable going to the counter to ask for naloxonef 50 (74)
    Expected the person at the pharmacy counter to know exactly what you were asking forf 60 (88)
    Expected the person at the counter to treat you with respectf 55 (81)
    Were worried what the pharmacy staff would think of you when asking for naloxonef 27 (40)
    Were worried about confidentialityf 30 (44)
    Got all the information needed during the purchase to confidently respond to an overdosef 30 (44)
  Would go to a pharmacy for naloxone againf 54 (79)
  1. aPercentages calculated based on n = 59 who had never purchased or otherwise obtained naloxone; bPercentages calculated based on n = 201 who had ever purchased or otherwise obtained naloxone; cPercentages calculated based on n = 205 who had never tried to purchase naloxone from a pharmacy without a prescription; dPercentage calculated based on n = 54 who had ever tried to purchase naloxone at a pharmacy without a prescription; eIncludes pharmacy naloxone purchase attempts with and without a prescription; fPercentages calculated based on n = 68 who had tried to purchase naloxone at a pharmacy with or without a prescription