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Table 1 The literature on the determinants of a person’s COVID-19 disease prevention behavior

From: Explaining interpersonal differences in COVID-19 disease prevention behavior based on the health belief model and collective resilience theory: a cross-sectional study from Bolivia

       Effects of independent variables
Year Authors Theory Country Sample size Dependent variable Effects of vulnerability Effects of attitudes toward disease prevention Effects of social orientation
2020 Alzoubi et al. - Jordan 592 students Disease prevention behavior Education type (medical vs. non-medical colleges) (n.s.) - -
2020 Bashirian et al. Protection motivation theory Iran 761 Disease prevention behavior Threat appraisal (susceptibility + severity) (+) Coping appraisal (feasibility + benefits - costs of prevention behavior) (+) -
2020 Chang et al. - Taiwan 414 patients Disease prevention behavior Fear of disease (-), psychological distress (n.s.), self-stigma (n.s.) Trust in information about disease prevention (+) -
2020 Chen et al. - China 8569 students Hand-washing / mask-wearing Local spread of disease (+/+), female gender (+/n.s.), education (+/+), parents' education (-/+), out-going history (+/not tested) - -
2020 Chen and Chen Theory of reasoned action China 1591 Disease prevention behavior Rural residence (n.s.) Perceived benefits of disease prevention behavior (+), information appraisal (+) Subjective norms (+)
2020 Everett et al. (no peer review) - U.S. 1032 Disease prevention intentions Age (+), female gender (+), white ethnicity (-), education (-), income (n.s.), employment (n.s.) - Political conservatism (-), religiosity (+)
2020 Harper et al. Moral foundations theory U.K. 324 Increase in disease prevention behavior Fear (+), depression (-), anxiety (n.s.), perceived risk (+) - Political orientation (n.s.), moral standards (n.s.)
2020 Lee and You Risk perception attitude framework South Korea 973 Disease prevention behaviors Age (+), female gender (+), education (+), income (+), city residence (-), presence of children (+), subjective health (+), perceived susceptibility (n.s.), perceived severity (+), social support (+) Perceived benefits of disease prevention behavior (+) -
2020a Li et al. Cognitive appraisal theory China 4607 Disease prevention behavior Age (-), female gender (+), education (+), psychological problems (n.s.), chronic disease (+), health condition (+), sick relatives (n.s.), knowledge (+), perceived severity (+) Perceived controllability (+) -
2020b Li et al. - U.S. 979 Disease prevention behavior Age (+), female gender (+), white ethnicity (-), marriage (+/-), income (+), education (-), employment (-), knowledge (+), susceptability (+) - -
2020 Min et al.   China 3000 Disease prevention behaviors Age (n.s.), female gender (n.s.), education (n.s.), marital status (+), city residence (n.s.), income (+), knowledge (+), negative emotion (n.s.) Trust in public institutions (+)  
2020 Kwok et al. Health belief model Hong Kong (China) 1715 Social distancing Age (n.s.), female gender (+), disease knowledge (+), visits to China (+), residence near border to China (+), chronic diseases (n.s.), anxiety (+) - -
2020 Oosterhoff et al. - U.S. 683 adolescents Social distancing Age (n.s.), female gender (n.s.), white / hispanic ethnicity (-), financial strain (n.s.), parents' education (+), lockdown (+), parents' rules (+) Importance of self-protection (n.s.), perceived lack of alternatives (+), preference to stay home (n.s.) Social pressure (n.s.), social responsibility (+), importance of protecting others (n.s.)
2020 Pfattheicher et al. Prosocial behavior U.S., U.K., Germany 3718 Social distancing / Mask-wearing - - Empathy (+)
2020 Prasetyo et al. Protection motivation theory Philippines 649 Disease prevention behavior Understanding of disease (+), perceived severity (+), perceived vulnerability (-), anxiety (+) Perceived behavioral control (+) Subjective norm (+)
2020 Shahnazi et al. Health belief model Iran 750 Disease prevention behavior Age (n.s.), female gender (+), rural residence (+), barriers (-), susceptibility (n.s.), severity (n.s.), self-efficacy (+), disease syndromes (n.s.) Perceived benefits of disease prevention behavior (+), fatalistic beliefs (-) -
2020 Taghrir et al. - Iran 240 students Disease prevention behavior Disease knowledge (n.s.), perceived risk (-) - -
2020 Yıldırım et al. - Turkey 3190 Disease prevention behavior Age (n.s.), female gender (+), severity (+), self-efficacy (+), knowledge (n.s.), mental health (+) - -
2021 Bronfman et al. - Chile 1004 Disease prevention behavior Female gender (+), family size (-), income (-) Trust in government (+) -
2021 Ezati-Rad et al. Protection motivation theory Iran 2032 Disease prevention behavior Threat apraisal (+), fear of disease (+) Motivation (+), coping appraisal (+), maladaptive behavior rewards (-), perceived costs (-) -
2021 Firouzbakht et al. - Iran 2097 Disease prevention behavior Female gender (+), age (+), education (+), income (+) Attitude toward face mask and gloves use (+) -
2021 Guo et al. E-health literacy Hong Kong (China) 1501 eHealth literacy score Older age (-), female gender (n.s.), marital status (n.s.), education (+), high income (+), employment (n.s.), chronic disease (n.s.) - -
2021 Hosen et al.   Bangladesh 10067 Disease prevention behavior Age (n.s.), female gender (+), employment (+), divorced/widowed (-), rural residence (-), education (-), knowledge (+), alcohol consumption (-), smoking (-) - -
2021 Šuriņa et al. Protection motivation theory Latvia 2606 Disease prevention behavior Fear of disease (+), threat appraisal (+) Conspiracy beliefs (n.s.), trust in information sources (+) -
2021 Yıldırım et al. - Turkey 4536 Disease prevention behavior Age (+), female gender (+), education (+), vulnerability (+), perceived risk (+), fear (+) - -
2022 This article Health belief model, collective resilience theory Bolivia 1231 Disease prevention behavior Age (+), female gender (+), education (n.s.), climate (n.s.), income-oriented work (n.s.), population density (n.s.), chronic health problems (U-shaped effect), depression (-), worries (+) Attitude toward social distancing (+), attitude toward lockdown (+), attitude toward lockdown enforcement (+), trust in public institutions (+) Individualism (+), collectivism (+)