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Table 2 Estimation results for the composite life-space scores

From: Associations between motorized transport access, out-of-home activities, and life-space mobility in older adults in Japan

Variable Univariate estimate 95% CI Multivariate estimate 95% CI
Male sample (N = 992)
Car access
  Level 0: No cars in home -0.15*** -0.21; -0.08 -0.13*** -0.2; -0.06
  Level 1: Only shared cars, no driver’s license -0.19** -0.34; -0.05 -0.14* -0.28; 0
  Level 3: Owning a car only 0.09*** 0.05; 0.13 0.08*** 0.04; 0.12
Public transport used
  Railway 0.09** 0.02; 0.16 0.08** 0.01; 0.15
Out-of-home activities
  Work 0.13*** 0.1; 0.17 0.07*** 0.02; 0.12
  Business 0.06*** 0.03; 0.08 0.03** 0.01; 0.06
  Shopping 0.02*** 0.01; 0.03 0.02*** 0.01; 0.03
  Daily leisure 0.03*** 0.01; 0.05 0.04*** 0.02; 0.05
  Non-daily leisure 0.05*** 0.02; 0.07 0.04*** 0.02; 0.06
  Hospital/clinic -0.05** -0.08; -0.01 -0.04* -0.07; 0
  Pickup 0.07*** 0.03; 0.11 0.08*** 0.04; 0.12
Socio-demographic characteristics
  Region 5 -0.06* -0.11; 0 -0.06* -0.11; 0
  Region 10 0.07* 0; 0.14 0.07* 0; 0.14
  Company employee 0.2*** 0.12; 0.28 0.2*** 0.12; 0.28
  Company manager 0.11* -0.01; 0.23 0.11* -0.01; 0.23
  Part-time job 0.12*** 0.06; 0.18 0.12*** 0.06; 0.18
  No employment -0.16*** -0.2; -0.11 -0.16*** -0.2; -0.11
  High income 0.11*** 0.05; 0.16 0.11*** 0.05; 0.16
  Age -0.01** -0.01; 0 -0.01** -0.01; 0
Female sample (N = 341)
Car access
  Level 1: Only shared cars, no driver’s license -0.17** -0.32; -0.03 -0.13* -0.27; 0.02
  Level 3: Owning a car only 0.12*** 0.05; 0.19 0.11** 0.03; 0.18
Out-of-home activities
  Shopping 0.03*** 0.01; 0.05 0.03*** 0.01; 0.05
  Daily leisure 0.08*** 0.04; 0.13 0.07*** 0.02; 0.12
  Pickup 0.11** 0.01; 0.2 0.12** 0.02; 0.21
Socio-demographic characteristics
  Region 12 -1.08*** -1.73; -0.43 -1.06*** -1.71; -0.41
  No employment -0.08** -0.17; 0 -0.28** -0.48; -0.08
Adjusted sample (N = 610)
Car access
  Level 0: No cars in home -0.09** -0.15; -0.02 -0.07* -0.14; 0
  Level 1: Only shared cars, no driver’s license -0.16** -0.29; -0.04 -0.1* -0.23; 0.02
  Level 2: Only shared cars, with driver’s license -0.07** -0.13; -0.01 -0.05* -0.12; 0.01
  Level 3: Owning a car only 0.13*** 0.08; 0.18 0.1*** 0.05; 0.16
Public transport used
  Railway 0.1* 0; 0.2 0.09* -0.01; 0.19
Out-of-home activities
  Work 0.16*** 0.11; 0.22 0.1** 0.03; 0.18
  Business 0.07*** 0.03; 0.11 0.04* 0; 0.08
  Shopping 0.03*** 0.02; 0.04 0.04*** 0.02; 0.05
  Daily leisure 0.07*** 0.04; 0.11 0.06*** 0.03; 0.09
  Non-daily leisure 0.09*** 0.03; 0.15 0.06** 0; 0.12
  Hospital/clinic -0.08*** -0.13; -0.02 -0.06** -0.11; -0.01
  Pickup 0.08*** 0.02; 0.14 0.08*** 0.02; 0.13
Socio-demographic characteristics
  Region 12 -0.84*** -1.3; -0.38 -0.8*** -1.26; -0.34
  Male 0.08*** 0.03; 0.13 0.08** 0.01; 0.16
  Houseworker -0.07** -0.13; -0.01 -0.15** -0.29; -0.02
  No employment -0.08*** -0.13; -0.03 -0.21*** -0.34; -0.09
  1. Note. The multivariate models were adjusted for all covariates such as gender, marital status, and regional characteristics. Only parameters significant in both univariate and multivariate models are presented. The parameters in this table are raw parameters reported by SPSS with Log link functions. Consequently, the natural exponentials of these parameter give the effects of the independent variables on the composite LSA scores. Negative parameters indicate associations between independent variables and reductions in the composite LSA scores, and positive parameters indicate associations with increases in the composite LSA scores
  2. '***': p-value ≤ 0.01; '**': p-value ≤ 0.05; '*': p-value < 0.1; 'No.': number; 'CI': Confidence Intervals