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Table 1 Descriptive information of the full sample and compared samples

From: Associations between motorized transport access, out-of-home activities, and life-space mobility in older adults in Japan

Characteristic Full sample Males Females Sig Restricted life-space adults Unrestricted life-space adults Sig
Socio-demographic
  Mean age (SD) 70.63 (4.81) 70.73 (5.09) 70.34 (4.68)   72.09 (6.85) 70.48 (4.54) ***
  Male 74.42% 100% 0% N/A 67.80% 75.06% *
  Married 82.37% 85.18% 74.19% *** 81.36% 82.47%  
  Having children & living together 59.49% 27.42% 28.45%   33.05% 27.16%  
  Company employee 6.68% 7.86% 3.23% *** 3.39% 7.00%  
  Company manager/executive 2.48% 3.23% 0.29% *** 2.54% 2.47%  
  Self employed 6.98% 8.27% 3.23% *** 4.24% 7.24%  
  Part-time job 12.23% 12.10% 12.61%   7.63% 12.67%  
  Housework 13.73% 0.81% 51.32% *** 16.95% 13.42%  
  No employment 53.41% 62.90% 25.81% *** 61.02% 52.67% *
  High income 14.78% 16.33% 10.26% *** 9.32% 15.31% *
Car access
  Level 0: No cars in home 15.15% 11.79% 24.93% *** 22.03% 14.49% **
  Level 1: Only shared cars, NOT having a driver’s license 3.30% 2.22% 6.45% *** 12.71% 2.39% ***
  Level 2: Only shared cars, HAVING a driver’s license 23.78% 22.28% 28.15% ** 22.88% 23.87%  
  Level 3: Owning a car only 51.69% 56.05% 39.00% *** 38.98% 52.92% ***
  Level 4: Both owning a car and sharing cars 6.08% 7.66% 1.47% *** 3.39% 6.34%  
Public transport used
  Bus 10.95% 10.48% 12.32%   9.32% 11.11%  
  Railway 9.68% 10.58% 7.04% * 5.08% 10.12% *
Assistance in traveling
  Using supportive equipment 4.20% 4.44% 3.52%   45.76% 0.16% ***
  With someone's help 3.23% 2.42% 5.57% *** 33.05% 0.33% ***
Out-of-home activities (activity number and SD)
  Work 0.23 (0.54) 0.27 (0.53) 0.13 (0.38) *** 0.11 (0.33) 0.24 (0.47) ***
  Business 0.22 (0.85) 0.27 (0.89) 0.08 (0.46) *** 0.11 (0.61) 0.23 (0.7) **
  Shopping 2.3 (1.97) 2.26 (1.81) 2.45 (1.93)   2.07 (2.32) 2.33 (1.82)  
  Daily leisure 0.47 (1.06) 0.51 (0.75) 0.34 (0.76) *** 0.39 (0.64) 0.47 (0.77)  
  Non-daily leisure 0.2 (0.79) 0.24 (0.59) 0.07 (0.32) *** 0.09 (0.26) 0.21 (0.48) **
  Clinic/hospital 0.22 (0.56) 0.23 (0.48) 0.17 (0.51) * 0.3 (0.79) 0.21 (0.45)  
  Pickup 0.12 (0.46) 0.13 (0.59) 0.09 (0.37)   0.07 (0.57) 0.12 (0.47)  
  Total 3.95 (2.93) 4.14 (2.45) 3.39 (2.31) *** 3.23 (3.07) 4.02 (2.3) ***
Life-space mobility indicators
  Composite life-space scores (SD) 77.41 (23.9) 78.8 (24.08) 73.35 (22.26) *** 39.09 (14.25) 81.13 (20.45) ***
  Restricted life-space = yes 8.85% 8.06% 11.14% * 100% 0% N/A
  Sample size 1,333 992 341   118 1215  
  1. Note. Differences in the means (for continuous variables) and frequencies (for binary variables) were tested using t-tests and chi-squared tests, respectively
  2. '***': p-value ≤ 0.01; '**': p-value ≤ 0.05; '*': p-value < 0.1
  3. 'N/A': not available; 'Sig.': significance; SD: standard deviation