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Table 3 The association between specific health conditions and finding any employment among unemployed Finnish men (n = 394,999) and women (n = 419,086) aged 30–60 in 2009–2018a

From: Health-related selection into employment among the unemployed

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3bc
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Men
 Cancer 0.91 (0.87,0.95) 0.90 (0.87,0.94) 0.90 (0.86,0.93)
 Diabetes 0.85 (0.83,0.86) 0.85 (0.83,0.87) 0.85 (0.83,0.87)
 Heart disease 0.87 (0.85,0.89) 0.86 (0.84,0.88) 0.87 (0.85,0.89)
 Neurological conditions 0.84 (0.83,0.86) 0.81 (0.79,0.83) 0.82 (0.80,0.84)
 Depression 0.60 (0.59,0.62) 0.64 (0.63,0.66) 0.70 (0.68,0.72)
 Anxiety disorders 0.57 (0.55,0.59) 0.63 (0.61,0.66) 0.74 (0.71,0.76)
 Substance use disorders 0.44 (0.43,0.46) 0.52 (0.50,0.53) 0.53 (0.51,0.54)
Women
 Cancer 0.91 (0.88,0.93) 0.89 (0.87,0.92) 0.87 (0.85,0.90)
 Diabetes 0.84 (0.82,0.86) 0.84 (0.82,0.86) 0.83 (0.81,0.85)
 Heart disease 0.87 (0.85,0.90) 0.86 (0.84,0.89) 0.86 (0.84,0.88)
 Neurological conditions 0.85 (0.84,0.86) 0.83 (0.81,0.84) 0.82 (0.81,0.84)
 Depression 0.62 (0.61,0.63) 0.66 (0.64,0.67) 0.68 (0.67,0.70)
 Anxiety disorders 0.63 (0.61,0.65) 0.68 (0.66,0.70) 0.77 (0.75,0.79)
 Substance use disorders 0.39 (0.37,0.40) 0.46 (0.44,0.48) 0.48 (0.46,0.50)
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. a Analyses conducted using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models; all p-values <.001. For the definitions of the specific health conditions, please see Measurements and Additional file 2
  3. b Model 1: Adjusted for age and unemployment onset year; each specific health condition (cancer, diabetes, heart disease, neurological conditions, depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders) modelled separately
  4. c Model 2: Model 1 + native language, marital status, education, occupational status, number of individuals living in the same household, home ownership, region of residence, unemployment history, number of unemployment spells, remaining comorbidities and for women, births over the two preceding years; each specific health condition (cancer, diabetes, heart disease, neurological conditions, depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders) modelled separately
  5. d Model 3b: Model 2 + binary measure for any remaining comorbidity; all specific health conditions modelled simultaneously