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Table 1 Analytical sample characteristics, Finnish unemployed men and women aged 30–60 in 2009–2018

From: Health-related selection into employment among the unemployed

  Men Women
N % Mean [SD] N % Mean [SD]
Individuals 394,999    419,086   
Unemployment spells 1,349,975   4.1 [4.7] 1,508,548   4.8 [6.5]
Unemployment spell duration, days    198.0 [211.1]    161.0 [188.7]
Unemployment spell outcomes
 Unemployed 469,915 34.8   425,128 28.2  
 Employed 606,589 44.9   773,739 51.3  
  Stable 314,956 23.3   470,717 31.2  
  Unstable 291,633 21.6   303,022 20.1  
 Training, education, labor market program 264,565 19.6   305,235 20.2  
 Migrated, retired, died 8906 0.7   4446 0.3  
 Agea    44.1 [9.3]    43.9 [9.1]
Educationa
 Basic   54.0    46.0  
 Secondary   49.9    50.1  
 Tertiary   35.6    64.4  
Health conditions prior to unemployment onseta
 Any alcohol-related conditions, poisonings 62,084 4.6   23,297 1.5  
 Any psychiatric conditions, self-harm 61,186 4.5   99,996 6.6  
  Depression 35,803 2.7   58.259 3.9  
  Anxiety disorders 16,315 1.2   23,932 1.6  
  Substance use disorders 57,223 4.2   21,095 1.4  
 Any injuries 157,716 11.7   116,117 7.7  
 Any physical conditions 401,426 29.7   559,999 37.1  
  Cancer 11,334 0.8   25,633 1.7  
  Diabetes 62,357 4.6   46,505 3.1  
  Heart disease 45,829 3.4   25,770 1.7  
  Neurological conditions 67,711 5.0   82,889 5.5  
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation
  2. a Presented as the share of all unemployment spells. Stable employment was defined as still being employed at the end of the calendar year following the initial date of employment, and unstable employment as no longer being employed. For the definitions of the general aspects of health and the specific health conditions, please see Measurements and Additional file 2