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Table 4 Cross-model distribution of expectations for visitors’ use of specific technique categories in intended pathwaysa to good birth outcomes

From: Changing the home visiting research paradigm: models’ perspectives on behavioral pathways and intervention techniques to promote good birth outcomes

How Often Technique Category is Endorsedb Technique Number and Namec Required Recommended No Expectation but Compatible Not Compatible Models Designating as High-Emphasisd
 ≥ 75% of intended pathways T20 Self-Belief 42% 42% 16% 0% 3
T03 Monitoring and Feedback 37% 48% 15% 0% 3
T22 Monitoring and Follow-up of Referral 35% 56% 9% 0% 3
T21 Referral and Linkage 32% 59% 9% 0% 4
T01 Assess Readiness for Change 30% 49% 21% 0% 1
T14 Credible Source 27% 63% 10% 0% 3
T23 Coordination with Other Services 18% 73% 9% 0% 3
T02 Goals and Planning 16% 73% 11% 0% 3
T04 Provide Social Support 15% 72% 13% 0% 3
T05 Suggest or Arrange Social Supporte 13% 73% 15% 0% 2
T08 Antecedents 8% 75% 17% 0% 1
50–74% of intended pathways T06 Natural Consequences 10% 51% 39% 0% 1
T12 Repetition and Substitutione 8% 60% 33% 0% 0
T13 Comparison of Outcomese 8% 58% 35% 0% 2
T07 Shape Knowledge of Behavior 8% 54% 38% 0% 1
T11 Associations to Deter Unwanted Behavior 8% 51% 41% 0% 0
T10 Associations to Promote Wanted Behavior 8% 50% 42% 0% 0
T17 Mental Regulation 4% 63% 33% 0% 2
T09 Behavior Observation 1% 63% 35% 0% 1
25–49% of intended pathways T15 Incentives and Rewards 8% 35% 57% 0% 0
T19 Self-Identity 3% 32% 39% 26% 1
 < 25% of intended pathways T18 Identity as Example to Others 6% 7% 87% 0% 0
T16 Scheduled Consequences 0% 0% 1% 99% 0
  1. aAn intended pathway is one in which a model designates a maternal behavior as a target behavior by requiring or recommending that visitors promote it as a way to reduce a priority risk
  2. bA technique category is considered endorsed if the model either requires or recommends that the visitor use it in the context of an intended pathway
  3. cNumber and name as in the Appendix
  4. dA model was considered to designate the technique category as high-emphasis if it rated it a “5” for any of its intended pathways in Survey 3
  5. ePercentages do not total 100% due to rounding