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Table 2 Characteristics of participating home visiting models

From: Changing the home visiting research paradigm: models’ perspectives on behavioral pathways and intervention techniques to promote good birth outcomes

  Year Designated as EBHVa Eligibility for Enrollment Home Visitor Educational Requirements for Hire Underlying Theories or Frameworks Year Scale Up Began Number of LIAsb
Family Spirit 2015 Expectant women and families with children < 3 years old Paraprofessional health educators with at least a high school credential G.R. Patterson’s developmental model; Traditional Tribal Teachings 2006 54
Healthy Families America 2011 Expectant women and families with newborns. HFA sites determine additional eligibility criteria. Home visitors with at least a high school diploma or bachelor’s degree, depending on state or agency needs Attachment theory; Bio-ecological systems theories; Dyadic; Trauma-Informed Care; Strength Based/Adaptive 1992 574*
Minding the Baby 2014 First-time expectant women in their 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy Nurse or mental health professionals. Mental health visitors must have a master’s in social work or a related field Attachment theory; Reflective parenting; Self-efficacy; Social-Ecological 2002 4*
Nurse-Family Partnership 2011 First-time expectant women in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy with low-income. NFP sites determine additional eligibility criteria. Nurses with at least a bachelor’s degree Attachment theory; Human Ecology theory; Self-Efficacy; Social-Cognitive 1996 312*
Parents as Teachers 2011 Expectant women and families with children up to kindergarten entry
(usually age 5)
Paraprofessional parent educators with at least a high school credential; bachelor’s degree in early child education recommended Attribution theory; Developmental Parenting; Family Systems Theory; Human Ecology Theory 1985 987*
  1. aYear designated as evidence-based by HomVEE [3]
  2. bNumber of local implementing agencies in the United States [34]
  3. Models with an asterisk(*) have been disseminated internationally