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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the subjects

From: Alcohol abuse as a potential risk factor of solitary death among people living alone: a cross-sectional study in Kyoto, Japan

  Total (N = 235) Non-alcohol abuse
(n = 167, 74.0%)
Alcohol abuse
(n = 68, 26.0%)
Age, mean (SD) 63.4 (15.1) 65.0 (16.2) 59.4 (10.9)
Men, n (%) 172 (73.2) 111 (66.5) 61 (89.7)
Smoking habit, n (%) 101 (43.0) 54 (32.3) 47 (69.1)
Psychiatric diseases, n (%) 54 (23.0) 32 (19.2) 22 (32.3)
Any comorbidities, n (%) 159 (67.7) 114 (68.2) 45 (65.2)
Hypertension, n (%) 64 (27.2) 50 (29.9) 14 (20.6)
Diabetes, n (%) 33 (14.0) 24 (14.0) 9 (13.2)
Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 40 (17.0) 30 (18.0) 10 (14.7)
Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 14 (5.9) 11 (6.6) 3 (4.4)
Kidney disease, n (%) 9 (3.8) 8 (4.8) 1 (1.5)
Cancer, n (%) 15 (6.4) 11 (6.6) 4 (5.9)
Cognitive decline, n (%) 11 (4.7) 10 (6.0) 1 (1.5)
Existence of relatives, n (%) 199 (84.7) 150 (85.6) 57 (82.3)
Summer season, n (%) 62 (26.4) 43 (24.6) 21 (30.9)
Low ADL, n (%) 31 (13.2) 23 (13.8) 8 (11.8)
Low SES, n (%) 67 (28.5) 35 (21.0) 32 (47.0)
  1. SD standard deviation, ADL activities of daily living, SES socioeconomic status