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Table 3 Bivariate analysis for insufficient and excessive gestational weight gain according to sociodemographic, obstetric and environmental factors. Belo Horizonte and Contagem, Minas Gerais

From: Environmental and individual factors associated with gestational weight gain

Sociodemographic, obstetric and environmental factors
  Insufficient weight gain n (%) OR(CI95%) p- value Excessive weight gain n (%) OR(CI95%) p- value
Age (years) 115 (22.73) 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.995 184 (36.36) 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.278
Educational level
  Elementary School 24 (22.86) 1   40 (38.10) 1  
  High school 61 (22.10) 0.98 (0.54–1.78) 0.965 109 (39.49) 1.14 (0.68 – 1.90) 0.610
  Higher education 30 (24.00) 0.79 (0.40 – 1.57) 0.517 35 (28.00) 0.65 (0.36 – 1.19) 0.171
Ethnicity/Racea
  White 34 (21.79) 1   51 (32.69) 1  
  Black 11 (30.56) 1.90(0.76 – 4.73) 0.163 13 (36.11) 1.41 (0.59 – 3.33) 0.429
  Brown 66(21.71) 1.06 (0.63 – 1.76) 0.814 117(38.49) 1.31(0.85 – 2.04) 0.215
  Yellow 2(25.00) 1.10 (0.18 – 7.46) 0.872 3(37.50) 1.59(0.31 – 8.13) 0.575
  Indigenous 2(100) -   - -  
Civil status
  Stable union 87 (22.48) 1   134 (34.63) 1  
  Without companion 28 (23.53) 1.35 (0.78 – 2.34) 0.271 50 (42.02) 1.33 (0.84 – 2.12) 0.215
Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)
  Eutrophic 69 (22.33) 1   80 (25.89) 1  
  Underweight 9 (40.91) 2.14 (0.83 – 5.48) 0.113 3 (13.64) 0.55 (0.14 – 2.14) 0.392
  Overweight 21 (17.65) 1.74 (0.92 – 3.28) 0.087 70 (58.82) 5.10 (3.08 – 8.44)  < 0.001
  Obesity 16 (28.57) 4.13 (1.74 – 9.79) 0.001 31 (55.36) 6.65 (3.14 – 14.08)  < 0.001
Smoking in the first 5 months of pregnancy
  No 108 (22.83) 1   166 (35.10) 1  
  Yes 7 (21.21) 1.58 (0.55 – 4.47) 0.387 18 (54.55) 2.29 (0.99 – 5.27) 0.051
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  No 104 (23.27) 1   158 (35.35) 1  
  Yes 11 (19.30) 0.91 (0.42 – 1.96) 0.817 25 (43.86) 1.36 (0.73 – 2.52) 0.318
Gestational diabetes
  No 104 (22.03) 1   171 (36.23) 1  
  Yes 11 (33.33) 2.15 (0.88 – 5.25) 0.091 12 (36.36) 1.30 (0.55 – 3.06) 0.539
Non gestational diabetes
  No 44 (19.30) 1   89 (39.04) 1  
  Yes 6 (75.00) 13,16 (1.56 – 111.15) 0.018 1 (12.50) 1,25 (0.07 – 19.90) 0.871
Parity
  Primiparous 47 (23.50) 1   72 (36.00) 1  
  Multiparous 49 (21.78) 0.97 (0.58 – 1.60) 0.912 90 (40.00) 1.45 (0.96 – 2.21) 0.076
Gestational age (weeks) 115 (22.73) 0.97 (0.85 -1.10) 0.649 184 (36.36) 0,97 (0.88 – 1.06) 0.579
Number of PN consultations
  Greater than or equal to 6 95 (22.95) 1   142 (34.30) 1  
  Less than 6 8 (22.86) 1.62 (0.60 – 4.35) 0.333 18 (51.43) 2.36 (1.04 – 5.34) 0.039
Professional who attended most PN consultations
  Nurse 15 (31.25) 1   15 (31.25) 1  
  Physician 100 (21.83) 0.62 (0.30 – 1.30) 0.221 169 (36.90) 1.14 (0.56 – 2.32) 0.705
Place where most PN consultations were carried out
  Public 63 (23.42) 1   112 (41.64) 1  
  Private 48 (22.43) 0.67 (0.41 – 1.08) 0.104 65 (30.37) 0.57 (0.37 – 0.86) 0.007
Healthy food purchasing establishments
  1 tercile 52 (24.19) 1   74 (34.42) 1  
  2 tercile 27 (19.01) 0.70 (0.40 – 1.25) 0.238 54 (38.03) 1.03 (0.64 – 1.65) 0.900
  3 tercile 36 (24.16) 1.06 (0.61 – 1.83) 0.834 56 (37.58) 1.08 (0.68 – 1.71) 0.736
Unhealthy food purchasing establishments
  1 tercile 41 (23.03) 1   56 (31.46) 1  
  2 tercile 33 (20.63) 1.01 (0.57 – 1.77) 0.961 62 (38.75) 1.30 (0.81 – 2.10) 0.267
  3 tercile 41 (21.40) 1.27 (0.72 – 2.23) 0.393 66 (39.29) 1.45 (0.91 – 2.30) 0.109
Mixed establishments near the place of residence
  1 tercile 42 (23.08) 1   57 (31.32) 1  
  2 tercile 35 (21.47) 1.05 (0.60 – 1.84) 0.842 63 (38.65) 1.34 (0.83 – 2.16) 0.226
  3 tercile 38 (23.60) 1.20 (0.68 – 2.13) 0.514 64 (39.75) 1.47 (0.92 – 2.34) 0.103
Available places for physical activity
  1 tercile 67 (23.51) 1   95 (33.33) 1  
  2 tercile 21 (20.39) 1.02 (0.54 – 1.93) 0.935 46 (44.66) 1.79 (1.07 – 2.97) 0.024
  3 tercile 27 (22.88) 1.02 (0.58 – 1.79) 0.935 43 (36.44) 1.10 (0.69 – 1.74) 0.670
Average income per Buffer
  1 tercile 31 (20.39) 1   53 (34.87) 1  
  2 tercile 39 (22.67) 1.35 (0.75 – 2.44) 0.311 70 (40.70) 1.45 (0.90 – 2.34) 0.122
  3 tercile 45 (25.00) 1.23 (0.68 – 2.20) 0.485 61 (33.89) 1.02 (0.65 – 1.61) 0.911
  1. P-value for Logistic Regression Models with Generalized Equation Estimation / 95% CI = 95% Confidence interval/Bold values =  < 0.2/ OR Odds Ratio, PN Prenatal; a This classification was made with reference to: Ethnicity/race was categorized using the definition used by the ethnic and racial characteristics of the population: a study of the categories of color or racial classification: 2008 from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) [21]