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Table 5 Differences for change in children’s BMI z-scores, vocabulary, and working memory (follow-up vs. baseline) between groups (accreditation vs. control)

From: The impact of new government childcare accreditation standards on children’s in-care physical activity and sedentary time

Outcome variables Groups Baseline Follow-up Follow-up vs. baseline Group*time
Model 1
   Estimated marginal means (SE) Mean difference (SE) B (95%CI)b P value
BMI z-score Accreditation (n = 121) 0.56 (0.09) 0.63 (0.10) 0.07 (0.06) 0.20 (0.05,0.35) 0.011
Control (n = 122) 0.85 (0.09) 0.73 (0.09) −0.13 (0.05)
Expressive vocabularya Accreditation (n = 67) 18.01 (1.00) 22.15 (1.02) 4.15 (0.53) −1.69(−3.26,-0.13) 0.034
Control (n = 46) 20.24 (1.20) 26.08 (1.22) 5.84 (0.58)
   Estimated marginal means (SE) Mean difference (SE) OR (95%CI)c P value
Working memorya Accreditation (n = 67) 0.25 (0.06) 0.70 (0.07) 0.45 (0.08) 5.20 (1.70,15.86) 0.004
Control (n = 46) 0.62 (0.09) 0.69 (0.09) 0.07 (0.09)
Model 2
   Estimated marginal means (SE) Mean difference (SE) B (95%CI)b P value
BMI z-score Accreditation (n = 115) 0.51 (0.10) 0.72 (0.11) 0.21 (0.07) 0.18 (0.03,0.34) 0.021
Control (n = 118) 0.77 (0.10) 0.79 (0.10) 0.03 (0.07)   
Expressive vocabularya Accreditation (n = 63) 19.49 (0.88) 19.47 (1.03) −0.02 (0.86) −1.64(−3.24,-0.05) 0.043
Control (n = 45) 22.82 (1.14) 24.44 (1.07) 1.62 (0.88)   
  Estimated marginal means (SE) Mean difference (SE) OR (95%CI)c P value
Working memorya Accreditation (n = 63) 0.30 (0.07) 0.62 (0.09) 0.32 (0.10) 5.71 (1.77,18.43) 0.004
Control (n = 45) 0.71 (0.09) 0.61 (0.09) −0.09 (0.11)   
  1. Abbreviations: B Unstandardized beta coefficient, OR Odds ratio, SE Standard error, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index
  2. Bold font indicates p < 0.05
  3. In model 1, the clustering effect of childcare centers and the repeated effect of time were included as random intercepts, and time, group, and time*group were included as fixed effects
  4. In model 2, the clustering effect of childcare centers and the repeated effect of time were included as random intercepts, and time, group, time*group, and covariates (child age, child race/ethnicity, parental education, and mean precipitation) were included as fixed effects
  5. aExpressive vocabulary (ranging from 0 to 45) and working memory (value “0” represents score ≤ 1 [range: 0.00–1.00]; value “1” represents score > 1 [range: 1.33–3.67]) were measured in preschool children only
  6. bEstimate for the interaction term between group (accreditation vs. control) and time (follow-up vs. baseline) and can be interpreted as the differences in change between groups for each outcome variable
  7. cEstimate for the interaction term between group (accreditation vs. control) and time (follow-up vs. baseline) and can be interpreted as the odds of having higher working memory (1 vs. 0) at follow-up (vs. baseline) in the accreditation group compared to the control group