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Table 2 The association between inadequate housing and tuberculosis by continent

From: Inadequate housing and pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review

  Outcomes
TB history Prevalence Incidence Rate Treatment
non-adherence
Treatment success
Exposures Poor housing affordability Homelessness Homeless vs. Non-homeless(sheltered)
  ++~+++ [36]   ++ [28] ++ [28]
  +++ [34]   + [37]
  ++ [29]   +++ [32]
History of homelessness
   + [35]   
Instability   +++ [47]    ++ [27]
+ [14] ++a [31]
++b [39] + [30]
  ++c [47]  
Poor housing quality Overcrowding Household with more than 2 residents per room
++~+++ [42] +++ [48] + [45] ++ [25]  
+ [46] +++ [13] + [44]
  + [47]  
  +++ [40]  
Quality of housing Improper ventilation
+++ [42] +++ [43]    
++ [49]
+++ [47]
+++ [48]
Lack of sunlight
  +++ [43]    
Poor roof condition
+ [46] + [48]    
  ++ [47]    
Poor floor condition
  ++ [47]    
Poor wall condition (without coating)
   + [45]   
Housing material (kaccha/kacha vs. pucca/pacca) d
+++ [42] ++ [41]    
  1. OR or RR 1<+≤2, 2<++≤3, 3<+++. TB, Tuberculosis. aProlonged hospitalization. bPublic vs. Private housing. cShared house. dSee text for details