Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the sample and the bivariate associations between predictors and outcome variables

From: Health and self-perceived barriers to internet use among older migrants: a population-based study

    Barriers of internet use (MCA) Internet too complicated Internet safety concerns
Variable Count % Mean p % p % p
Gender     0.786   0.544   0.941
  Female 466 43.1 -0.01   11.59   23.82  
  Male 616 56.9 0.01   10.71   23.86  
Age 1082 63.2 (8.4) 0.30 <0.0005 1.10 <0.0005 0.98 0.365
Marital status     0.013   <0.0005   0.387
  Married or cohabiting 796 74.6 -0.05   9.67   25.38  
  Other 271 25.4 0.14   15.50   20.66  
Command of Finnish or Swedish     <0.0005   <0.0005   0.023
  Poor 634 62.2 0.08   14.04   21.92  
  Good 385 37.8 -0.17   5.45   26.75  
Highest education in the country of origin     <0.0005   <0.0005   0.502
  Higher education 541 50.0 -0.12   7.02   23.66  
  Vocational education 459 42.4 0.09   13.94   24.62  
  General/No education/Missing 82 7.6 0.25   21.95   20.73  
Income support     <0.0005   <0.0005   0.020
  No 592 58.4 -0.12   7.26   27.03  
  Yes 421 41.6 0.11   15.44   19.95  
Internet problems         
  Use is too complicated and it is too hard to learn 120 11.1 . . . . . .
  I am concerned about internet safety issues 258 23.8 . . . . . .
  Someone else than myself takes care of the matters that require internet use 160 14.8 . . . . . .
  Use of internet is too expensive 38 3.5 . . . . . .
  Use of internet is complicated by the limited eyesight, hearing or other physical reasons 56 5.2 . . . . . .
  Memory problems hinder the internet use 20 1.9 . . . . . .
  I have not faced any of such problems 563 52.0 . . . . . .
Diagnosed diseases         
  High blood pressure, hypertension 515 47.6 0.13 <0.0005 13.79 <0.0005 24.47 0.703
  Spine deterioration, sciatica or other back problem 344 31.8 0.07 0.095 11.52 0.410 26.45 0.102
  Osteoarthritis, joint deterioration 304 28.1 0.14 0.012 15.46 <0.0005 23.03 0.740
  Rheumatoid arthritis or other rheumatoid disease 121 11.2 0.23 0.027 15.70 0.203 25.62 0.151
  Depression or other mental health problems 106 9.8 0.16 0.155 16.04 0.008 19.81 0.301
  Asthma 72 6.7 0.14 0.144 9.72 0.942 25.00 0.687
  Diabetes 144 13.3 0.14 0.226 11.81 0.971 26.39 0.587
  Memory disorders (Alzheimer's or dementia) 19 1.8 0.78 0.012 31.58 0.007 21.05 0.294
  Cancer 76 7.0 0.12 0.258 10.53 0.999 18.42 0.857
  Other chronic disease or health problem 374 34.6 0.10 0.081 13.64 0.020 21.39 0.062
Depressive symptoms (CES-D)     <0.0005   0.024   0.009
  No 772 71.4 -0.13   9.46   22.41  
  Yes 194 17.9 0.39   18.56   30.41  
  Missing 116 10.7 0.21   9.48   22.41  
Self-rated health     <0.0005   <0.0005   0.055
  Good or fairly good 431 40.2 -0.29   5.34   21.35  
  Average to poor 640 59.8 0.18   14.69   25.47  
Memory: poor or very poor 64 6.0 0.55 0.006 28.13 0.002 17.19 0.410
Concentration: poor or very poor 27 2.6 0.79 <0.0005 33.33 <0.0005 11.11 0.261
New information and learning: poor or very poor 79 7.6 0.82 <0.0005 35.44 <0.0005 24.05 0.976
  1. Footnote:
  2. Statistical tests performed with cluster-robust variance estimation & survey weights
  3. Results with a p-value ≤ 0.05 in bold
  4. Cell contents for age: count, mean (SD); correlation, p; odds ratio, OR, p; OR, p