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Table 2 Joinpoint trend analysis of liver cancer age-standardized incidence, mortality, and 1-MIR rates worldwide by sex, 1990–2019

From: Global pattern of trends in incidence, mortality, and mortality-to-incidence ratio rates related to liver cancer, 1990–2019: a longitudinal analysis based on the global burden of disease study

Measure Trend Both Male Female
Year APC (95%CI) Year APC (95%CI) Year APC (95%CI)
Incidence        
  Trend 1 1990–1994 2.70*(2.30,3.10) 1990–1994 3.20*(2.80,3.60) 1990–1995 1.30*(1.20,1.50)
  Trend 2 1994–1998 −0.10(−0.70,0.50) 1994–1998 0.10(−0.60,0.70) 1995–2000 −1.30*(−1.50,-1)
  Trend 3 1998–2001 −2.60*(−3.80,-1.40) 1998–2001 −2.50*(−3.80,-1.30) 2000–2005 −6.0*(−6.20,-5.70)
  Trend 4 2001–2004 −8.90*(−10,-7.70) 2001–2004 −9.40*(−10.60,-8.30) 2005–2015 − 0.60*(− 0.70,-0.50)
  Trend 5 2004–2007 −2.40*(−3.60,-1.20) 2004–2007 −2.60*(−3.80,-1.30) 2015–2019 −0.10(− 0.40,0.10)
  Trend 6 2007–2019 0(−0.10,0) 2007–2019 0.10*(0,0.20)   
  AAPC 1990–2019 −1.10*(−1.40,-0.90) 1990–2019 − 1.10*(− 1.30,-0.80) 1990–2019 − 1.30*(− 1.40,-1.20)
Mortality        
  Trend 1 1990–1996 1.90*(1.70,2.20) 1990–1996 2.40*(2.10,2.70) 1990–1996 0.90*(0.80,1.10)
  Trend 2 1996–2000 −1.70*(− 2.30,-1.10) 1996–2000 − 1.50*(− 2.30,-0.80) 1996–2000 − 2.0*(− 2.40,-1.60)
  Trend 3 2000–2004 −8.90*(− 9.50,-8.30) 2000–2004 − 9.40*(− 10.10,-8.80) 2000–2004 −7.20*(−7.60,-6.80)
  Trend 4 2004–2012 − 1.20*(− 1.30,-1) 2004–2011 − 1.30*(− 1.60,− 1.10) 2004–2012 -1.10*(− 1.30,-1)
  Trend 5 2012–2019 0.20*(0,0.30) 2011–2019 0.20*(0,0.40) 2012–2019 − 0.30*(− 0.40,-0.20)
  AAPC 1990–2019 − 1.40*(− 1.50,− 1.30) 1990–2019 -1.30*(− 1.50,-1.20) 1990–2019 −1.50*(− 1.60,-1.40)
1-MIR        
  Trend 1 1990–1992 34.30*(10.80,62.70) 1990–1992 22.90*(3.60,45.70)
  Trend 2 1992–1999 −7.50*(− 10.40,-4.40) 1992–1999 − 7.0*(− 9.60,-4.30)
  Trend 3 1999–2002 65.50*(36.50,100.50) 1999–2002 54.80*(30.60,83.60)
  Trend 4 2002–2005 −16.60(− 31.10,1.10) 2002–2005 −13.90(− 27.40,2.10)
  Trend 5 2005–2012 5.70*(2.30,9.20) 2005–2012 5.30*(2.30,8.30)
  Trend 6 2012–2019 −0.40(− 2.90,2.20) 2012–2019 − 0.10(− 2.40,2.20)
  AAPC 1990–2019 4.90*(1.70,8.10) 1990–2019 3.90*(1.20,6.80)
  1. APC Annual Percentage Change, AAPC Average Annual Percent Change, CI Confidence Interval, MIR Mortality-to-incidence Ratio 
  2. *Significantly different from 0 at alpha = 0.05 (p < 0.05). There are 1+(number of trend) joinpoints for each model