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Table 2 Characteristics of household by distress financing and the relationship of distress financing between the variables in Malaysia (n = 5,146)

From: The inequalities and determinants of Households’ Distress Financing on Out-off-Pocket Health expenditure in Malaysia

Characteristics n (%) Distress Health Financing p-valuea
Yes % No %
Total 5,146 (100.0) 774 15.0 4,372 85.0 -
Household location       < 0.001***
  Urban 3,196 (62.1) 437 13.7 2,759 86.3  
  Rural 1,950 (37.9) 337 17.3 1,613 82.7  
Total of household members aged 65 years and older       < 0.001***
  0 3,853 (74.9) 429 11.1 3,424 88.9  
  1 991 (19.2) 275 27.8 716 72.2  
  2 and more 302 (5.9) 70 23.2 232 76.8  
Total of household members aged less than 5 years       0.001**
  0 4,182 (81.3) 660 15.8 3,522 84.2  
  1 736 (14.3) 78 10.6 658 89.4  
  2 and more 228 (4.4) 36 15.8 192 84.2  
Household size       0.041*
  Less than 5 4,081 (79.3) 635 15.6 3,446 84.4  
  5 and more 1,065 (20.7) 139 13.1 926 86.9  
Socio-economic status       < 0.001***
  Poorest 1,425 (27.7) 372 26.1 1,053 73.9  
  Poor 1,098 (21.3) 144 13.1 954 86.9  
  Middle 941 (18.3) 117 12.4 824 87.6  
  Rich 874 (17.0) 77 8.8 797 91.2  
  Richest 808 (15.7) 64 7.9 744 92.1  
Total of household members received outpatient care in the past 2 weeks       0.180
  0 3,874 (75.3) 561 14.5 3,313 85.5  
  1 1,005 (19.5) 170 16.9 835 83.1  
  2 209 (4.1) 36 17.2 173 82.8  
  More than 2 58 (1.1) 7 12.1 51 87.9  
Total of household members received inpatient care in the past 12 months       0.016*
  0 4,345 (84.4) 625 14.4 3,720 85.6  
  1 694 (13.5) 128 18.4 566 81.6  
  2 97 (1.9) 20 20.6 77 79.4  
  More than 2 10 (0.2) 1 10.0 9 90.0  
Total of household members received oral healthcare in the past 12 months       < 0.001***
  0 2,840 (55.2) 475 16.7 2,365 83.3  
  1 1,204 (23.4) 168 13.9 1,036 86.1  
  2 611 (11.9) 63 10.3 548 89.7  
  More than 2 491 (9.5) 68 13.8 423 86.2  
Number of supplementary health coverage       < 0.001***
  No coverage 1,677 (32.6) 340 20.3 1,337 79.7  
  One coverage 1,608 (31.2) 235 14.6 1,373 85.4  
  More than 1 coverage 1,861 (36.2) 199 10.7 1,662 89.3  
OOP expenditure for health in the past 12 months (MYR)       0.577
  Less than 100 4,347 (84.5) 653 15.0 3,694 85.0  
  100 to < 200 195 (3.8) 25 12.8 170 87.2  
  200 to < 300 77 (1.5) 9 11.7 68 88.3  
  300 to < 400 47 (0.9) 6 12.8 41 87.2  
  400 and more 480 (9.3) 81 16.9 399 83.1  
  1. Note: a Chi Square Test
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (significance level at 10%, 5%, and 1%, respectively)